Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Book Thief By Markus Zusak - 1047 Words

In the Novel the Book Thief by Markus Zusak and Breaking Prejudice from National Radio, we see there to be a change in perspective due to insightful personal discoveries. We see this occur for the better and the worse, on a smaller scale in the case of the Book Thief and on a larger scale in Breaking Prejudice, which serves to demonstrate to the reader the many levels on which insight can affect perspective. In the Book Thief, Liesel’s initial perspective of both her foster mother Rosa, and Hitler, change as a result of a moment of realisation caused by their actions. Similarly, we see a change of perspective in Breaking prejudice that sprung from an insightful discovery, however one that is more dramatic. Zelda Le Garange, a wealthy, white girl who grew up in the richer part of South Africa, had a conditioned perspective on black people, completely transformed through meeting the loving Nelson Mandela. In the Book Thief, the protagonist Liesel undergoes a minor moment of insight that changes her perspective on Rosa for the better. When Liesel first met Rosa, her initial perspective was one of cynicism and distaste. When Liesel first arrives in Munich and refuses to bath Rosa calls her a â€Å"filthy pig†. This horridly evocative metaphor gives reason for the narrator, Death, to state that â€Å"Liesel was bathed in anxiety†. The metaphorical allusion to â€Å"bathing† in an emotion emphasizes that Liesel is consumed by negative emotion. As the novel progresses however, we see LieselShow MoreRelatedThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1014 Words   |  5 PagesGerman. The Book Thief by Markus Zusak, is a story about an orphan who lives in Molching, a town where the Holocaust and the bombing occur. Throughout the novel, she steals books in order to become a better reader and writer. The city of Molching and the characters and not real, but the details of the events, se ttings, and people are accurately portrayed in the novel. Therefore, the portrayal of racism and the conditions of Jews in Nazi Germany are accurately depicted in the Book Thief. The portrayalRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak908 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout The Book Thief, the readers are shown how the characters achieve great things through their will to survive. The readers can see from Liesel, Hans, and Max how this is done. Germany in 1934 was hard to survive due to the bombings and fear. The author, Markus Zusak, writes about the Hubermanns hiding a Jew and how they take care of each other. The theme of reaching great things while surviving becomes very clear through the setting, plot, and characters. In The Book Thief, the setting revealsRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1630 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"I wanted to tell the book thief many things, about beauty and brutality. But what could I tell her about those things that she didn t already know? I wanted to explain that I am constantly overestimating and underestimating the human race-that rarely do I ever simply estimate it. I wanted to ask her how the same thing could be so ugly and so glorious, and its words and stories so damning and brilliant.† (Zusak 550) Markus Zusak wrote â€Å"The Book Thief† which is a historical fiction novel about aRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1231 Words   |  5 PagesIn The Book Thief, Markus Zusak shows different contexts with the same similar message. Zusak is revealing to the reader that words can be very powerful. The societal statement â€Å"power is knowledge† can be linked to the book by how knowledge creates power.The setting of Nazi Germany within the book burnings event, the basement with Max, and Liesel defending herself by her choice of words are all relevant to this societal statement since it demonstrates the idea of knowledge in numerous ways, and howRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1399 Words   |  6 Pages Throughout history, humanity has had to endure many hardships. To help cope with these misfortune human nature can be observed in the many ways it has evolved in people to help them to withstand the perils that make up a war. In Markus Zusak’s novel The Book Thief, published in 2005, Liesel Meminger must survive the struggles she faces as a result of her life being in the middle of the grips of Nazi Germany. Faced with events like the loss of all her closest loved ones, the Holocaust, discriminationRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1164 Words   |  5 Pagesmass genocide. So how does someone stop a powerhouse such as this? For Liesel, a small girl in Molching, stealing books is her getaway. â€Å"The Book Thief† by Markus Zusak is a unique book which puts Death into the narrator s place. And when Death becomes a storyteller, telling the story of Liesel using three colors. Red. White. Black. Death talks to readers about how Liesel steals books as a way to escape re ality and along the way learns about the horrible, tyrannical country that she calls home. ButRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1549 Words   |  7 Pages The Book Thief by Markus Zusak is classified as a historical fiction novel because it tells a story that takes place during a tragic period in human history. This book reminds readers of the unspeakable acts that occurred during World War II under the Nazi Regime in Germany. The book focuses on the life of a nine year old girl, Liesel Meminger, living in Germany during this period of history. Markus Zusak was significantly influenced by his parent’s stories of their personal experiences of whatRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1755 Words   |  8 Pagesways that thought may not be able to. They are carefully placed and shared in different ways by each and every individual. Words have powerful impacts and can majorly impact how one may think, feel, or even lead others to feel. Written by Markus Zusak, â€Å"The Book Thief† describes a story of an innocent foster girl, Liesel Meminger, who resides in Munich, Germany at one of the most troubling time periods in history, Nazi Germany. A tale narrated by the one and only Death himself, shows the perspectiveRead MoreThe Book Thief By Markus Zusak1189 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Your new home.† These are words many people never want to hear and Liesel Meminger doesn’t want to hear them either. In the historical fiction book, The Book Thief, by Markus Zusak, the main character is a young girl named Liesel Meminger. During World War 2, it’s bad enough that Liesel and her younger brother, Werner have to move to a foster home far away from everything they have ever known because their mother can’t support them alone, but when her brother dies on the way there, she has to figureRead MoreThe Book Thief by Markus Zusak789 Words   |  3 Pages Adversity is a large factor in the shaping process of one’s charact er development, but it always varies from person to person. In his novel The Book Thief, Markus Zusak integrates adversity into the lives of his characters through the political struggles during the era of World War II, to ultimately shape their personal character and identity. The development by adversity is demonstrated largely through three different characters: Liesel Meminger, Hans Hubermann, and Max Vandenberg. Liesel Meminger

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Persuasive Essay On Suicide - 1622 Words

Kids health states, â€Å"Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for people from 15 to 24 years old. On a average, 1 person commits suicide every 16.2 minutes. That one suicide could affect other people.† Suicide takes its toll on people when it comes to certain things like depression, loneliness, or peer pressure(bullying). Suicide is one of the highest causes of death because so many think that is a way to get out of certain things or when they feel like they should just give up. Suicide could be prevented if teens had better peers, therapy if needed, more of a supporter that shows they care, and better ways to look out for warning signs. When it comes to the topic of suicide, most of us will readily agree that it occurs often†¦show more content†¦Many people assume that there are only one type of suicide but there are four. Egoistic Suicide (relates to the person being alone or an outsider, somebody with low interactions with others), Altruistic Suicide (A soci al group involvement), Anomic Suicide (carried out during periods of considerable stress and frustration), and Fatalistic Suicide (Where there is extreme rule in order or high expectations set upon a person or people in which lead them to a sense of no self or individuality). All totally different subjects of suicides. Teenagers don’t just commit suicide because they think it’s all fun and games but they do it because they are feeling helpless or hopeless. They don’t have anybody that can really understand what is going on in their heads or how they are truly feeling, most people that have friends like this try and play the role like they know but it just makes it even harder to handle the situation. Certain peer groups can also find a way to a person and cause them to lose hope in things they once cared for and make them want to just give up. Peer pressure is really hard to deal with also, especially if nobody knows what is really going on because the person d ealing with it doesn’t speak up thinking it will go away. â€Å"Peer Pressure leads to first pulling out hair,then depending on others, then hating yourself andShow MoreRelatedSuicide Persuasive Essay1098 Words   |  5 PagesAlso asking different kinds of questions like, â€Å"What was the cause of suicide?† â€Å"Is there anything to prevent people from killing themselves?†. How can the society help the people in this world stop this problem? After doing a lot of research on my topic, now I know and everyone knows that we can help people in this world to stop and think about what they are doing. There are many ways on how to help people from committing suicide. The problem in this world is that millions of people are dying fromRead MorePersuasive Essay On Student Suicide880 Words   |  4 Pagescolleges and universities ignored student suicide to save their reputation, studies were conducted to show what causes suicide ideations and attempts (Brandt, 35). T hese have led to the results of showing what can be linked to suicide, such as risky behaviors. Since the 1950s, the suicide rate among young adults have tripled, due to numerous factors. (Cerel, 46) After the influence of parents and other students, universities have begun to change how they handle suicide on campus. New studies were then createdRead MorePersuasive Essay On Teen Suicide1235 Words   |  5 Pagesvoice forever by committing suicide? When a student dies in an accident, schools can mourn the death as a random occurrence. However, when a student kills themselves, a school feels guilty as they mourn. While the teachers feel guilty because they failed to help someone. The students feel bad for not knowing the student. Those who are responsible in some way are conflicted inside by guilt. A school becomes torn up when suicide occurs. However, if schools want to end suicides, they must ask, why are theseRead MoreOutline for Persuasive Essay on Physician Assisted Suicide754 Words   |  4 PagesTitle: Physician Assisted Suicide Topic: Assisted Suicide Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience on the right to choose your path with P.A.S. Thesis Statement: Physician Assisted Suicide should be a matter of free will and not just law. Introduction Attention Material: â€Å"But it may also be within my power to take a life, this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play God†Read MoreAssisted Suicide Should Be Legalized: A Persuasive Essay2485 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction According to the U.S. Supreme Court, assisted suicide is not a right, and it remains illegal in most states. Oregon, Washington and Montana do permit it, however, and even though their laws in the courts for many years, in the end the Supreme Court did not forbid the states from passing such laws altogether. Many states already allow patients to refuse treatment in these situations, to die without having to endure extraordinary lifesaving measures, and to withhold food and water fromRead MoreMarriage Equality2061 Words   |  9 Pagesstates such as Massachusetts, California, New York, and Oregon have made same sex marriage legal. In the fight for gay marriage political essay such as â€Å"Gay â€Å"Marriage†: Societal Suicide† by Charles Colson and â€Å"What’s Wrong with Gay Marriage?† by Kath Pollitt were inspired. In these essays both writers have different points of views, but they are also both very persuasive on what’s right and wrong with sa me sex marriage along with supporting points. Same sex marriage is one of the most controversialRead MoreMy Writing Of My New College Career1374 Words   |  6 Pagesfirst essay paper, of my new college career, I could feel my heart start racing as soon as I read the word persuasive. I felt the emotional weight land on my shoulders already and I hadn’t even started writing yet. Persuasive was a word I was not good at portraying. I have never been a good talker to get people to do what I want. I tend to be a follower in these situations. So how was I going to get somebody to agree or see my point of view in words? I started off trying to find an essay thatRead MorePersuasive Essay Topics1228 Words   |  5 Pages101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay, this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to todays society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24Read More The Persuasive Tone of The Flea Essay766 Words   |  4 PagesThe Persuasive Tone of The Flea      Ã‚  Ã‚   John Donne, a member of metaphysical school in the Seventeenth century, exhibited his brilliant talent in poetry. In The Flea, he showed the passion to his mistress via persuasive attitude. The tone might straightforwardly create playfulness or sinfulness; yet, the poem contains none of either. What impress readers most is situation and device. The situation between the speaker and the audience is persuasion, love or marriage. As to device, the notableRead MoreComparison Of Emma Watson And Tim Watsons Speech941 Words   |  4 PagesEmma Watson and Tim Collins Analysis and Comparison Essay English Language Assignment In this essay I will be comparing and analysing Emma Watsons ‘Gender Equality is your issue too’ speech, executed on the 20th of September, 2014. Watson had pre-prepared this speech, as it was performed for the HeForShe campaign at the UN Headquarters, in New York. Alongside Tim Collins’ speech to the 1st Battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment, in Iraq, 2003 – of which was an eve-of-battle rousting and of which

Affecting Change Free Essays

Change is inevitable in any organization.   There are different situations which can force an organization to change its internal organization in order to match to the changes. Change is important since it assists an organization to carry on despite the changing business environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Affecting Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, it is not that easy to carry out a change in a business organization especially when this changes touches on organizational employees. There are different hurdles to change but they can be overcome through proper management of organization resources and use of appropriate change management process. Most important, it is imperative that an organization put in place strategies to empower employees, use the appropriate management practices and initiate change in organization culture if the overall change is to succeed. Let us look at how these three factors can be used to ensure successful change implementation. Organization management practices in the 21st century assert that organizational employees are the most important asset that determines the success or failure of the organization. A well motivated and qualified workforces from a competitive advantage for an organization which is very difficult for other organizations in the same field to replicated. It is important that employees feel as a part of the organization to function effectively. This means that if an organization wants to have a change in its operation, it must get its employees involved so that they can feel as a part of the changes. Employee resistance can affect change implementation in various ways and may finally lead to drift of change strategy (Scott et al., 2003). There are different ways to empower employees so that they can feel as a part of the change process. It is important to give them power to say yes or no at their free will and under no influence.   In order to involve employees directly, it is important o eliminated barriers, restrictions and protocols they have to go through before making their contribution. Employees should also be involved in the decision making process and their input should be valued. It is also important to encourage reward improvements noted on employees and finally, they should be given equal and direct access to information. Management practices can also be great impediments to organization change.   This means that good management practices are imperative for successful change in an organization (Scott et al., 2003). Good management practices include those practices that will identify a problem, evaluate it and finally implement it to give positive results to the organization. Good management practices mainly involve what is to be done and how it will be done to ensure success. During organization change process, good management practices involve practices which will identify barriers to the change, draw strategies to overcome these barriers and successfully implement these strategies. Good management practices should get employees more involved in management practices and change process. Organizational culture is the greatest impediment to change process in an organization. Organization culture describes those practices which have been practiced in an organization for a longer period of time and proved effective in running the organization. Organization culture describes the daily practices in the organization.   Changing organization culture is difficult that implementing a change in other area in the organization (Scott et al., 2003). Changing organizational culture in order to accommodate organizational change can be a long process that is quite involving. Change in organization culture must allow for continuity and modify the socializing tactics that have allowed the culture to propel. Resistance to change in culture must be addressed in the most appropriate way. Reference: Scott, P. M., Andrew, H., Doole, K. (2003). Organizational change. Oxford Publishers How to cite Affecting Change, Papers

Affecting Change Free Essays

Change is inevitable in any organization.   There are different situations which can force an organization to change its internal organization in order to match to the changes. Change is important since it assists an organization to carry on despite the changing business environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Affecting Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, it is not that easy to carry out a change in a business organization especially when this changes touches on organizational employees. There are different hurdles to change but they can be overcome through proper management of organization resources and use of appropriate change management process. Most important, it is imperative that an organization put in place strategies to empower employees, use the appropriate management practices and initiate change in organization culture if the overall change is to succeed. Let us look at how these three factors can be used to ensure successful change implementation. Organization management practices in the 21st century assert that organizational employees are the most important asset that determines the success or failure of the organization. A well motivated and qualified workforces from a competitive advantage for an organization which is very difficult for other organizations in the same field to replicated. It is important that employees feel as a part of the organization to function effectively. This means that if an organization wants to have a change in its operation, it must get its employees involved so that they can feel as a part of the changes. Employee resistance can affect change implementation in various ways and may finally lead to drift of change strategy (Scott et al., 2003). There are different ways to empower employees so that they can feel as a part of the change process. It is important to give them power to say yes or no at their free will and under no influence.   In order to involve employees directly, it is important o eliminated barriers, restrictions and protocols they have to go through before making their contribution. Employees should also be involved in the decision making process and their input should be valued. It is also important to encourage reward improvements noted on employees and finally, they should be given equal and direct access to information. Management practices can also be great impediments to organization change.   This means that good management practices are imperative for successful change in an organization (Scott et al., 2003). Good management practices include those practices that will identify a problem, evaluate it and finally implement it to give positive results to the organization. Good management practices mainly involve what is to be done and how it will be done to ensure success. During organization change process, good management practices involve practices which will identify barriers to the change, draw strategies to overcome these barriers and successfully implement these strategies. Good management practices should get employees more involved in management practices and change process. Organizational culture is the greatest impediment to change process in an organization. Organization culture describes those practices which have been practiced in an organization for a longer period of time and proved effective in running the organization. Organization culture describes the daily practices in the organization.   Changing organization culture is difficult that implementing a change in other area in the organization (Scott et al., 2003). Changing organizational culture in order to accommodate organizational change can be a long process that is quite involving. Change in organization culture must allow for continuity and modify the socializing tactics that have allowed the culture to propel. Resistance to change in culture must be addressed in the most appropriate way. Reference: Scott, P. M., Andrew, H., Doole, K. (2003). Organizational change. Oxford Publishers How to cite Affecting Change, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Morality of Stem Cell Research Essay Example

The Morality of Stem Cell Research Essay Much debate has raged over the influence of nature and nurture on how people behave. Indeed human behavior can be studied by using environmental and biological approaches. However, there is a divergence in beliefs as to the roles of nature and nurture as far as human development is concerned. Fukuyama in his book Our Posthuman Future (2002) believes that science when taken to extreme, would very well be the cause of humanity’s end. The book argues that the manipulation of the very process that define life can create minute but certain changes in our common humanity, thereby altering our collective values underlie our history. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 7) Consequently, the author believes that biotechnology may very well signal a revolution of catastrophic levels and advocates for controlling such rapid advances in medical and biological technology. This paper seeks to analyze this argument by framing it within an existing and controversial issue which is stem cell research. Humanity: A Sense of Personhood What separates humans from animals? That question has long baffled philosophers, psychologists, and scientists alike, because the answers are both simple and complex that any one person can come up theories as to the elements that distinguish humans from other kinds of animals. More than anything else, it is the ability to be deliberate in our choices and actions as we navigate the daily responsibilities of life. The ability to be guided by reason and free will and discern right and wrong separates us from animals (Harre 1998). We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This ability to differentiate and reflect between right and wrong is called personhood. The idea of personhood is something that is intimately tied with our collective consciousness and humanity, which explains why it can be very difficult to define, much less describe within certain parameters. The ideas behind personhood are the basis of fundamental human rights, humanitarian acts, as well as laws and regulations of an ordered society. Personhood may be defined as that innate capacity and right of a person for conscious deliberation and self-determination, based on proper reasoning. Personhood is not merely a function of genetic or organic existence. Much of personhood is an intangible concept that goes beyond simply being labeled as a living organism. Frankfurt (1971, p 6) defines a person as a creature with the capacity to fulfill needs and desires in ways that indicate free will and reasoning. The person is able to identify these needs and desires and acts in deliberation and fr ee will in order to achieve such desires. The person, acting in such capacity, is fully aware of the motivations that lead him or her to such actions. A person is a unique creature and stands apart from other animals because humans have the ability to deliberate on desires and make the appropriate choices and actions based on their free will. The person’s free will and reasoning enables him to make appropriate actions and whether to repress these desires or pursue its fulfillment. Unlike animals that are driven by instinct and basal needs, a person has the ability to exercise his free will and reason and make a choice on what actions to take. Raz (2006, p. 3) elevates the concept of personhood further to emphasize the role of reason in the exercise of free will. Raz maintains that it is reason that determines if an individual is truly using his free will or not. Given a variety of desires and needs, the person, guided by reason, decides on what desires to act on, if at all. T he choices are based on the individual’s ability to evaluate and prioritize desires and recognize motivations and ascribe to them values of right and wrong (Watson 1987, p. 217). Analysis of Ethical Issues Unlike animals that are driven by instinct and basal needs, a person has the ability to exercise his free will and reason and make a choice on what actions to take. Raz (2006, p. 3) elevates the concept of personhood further to emphasize the role of reason in the exercise of free will. Raz maintains that it is reason that determines if an individual is truly using his free will or not. Given a variety of desires and needs, the person, guided by reason, decides on what desires to act on, if at all. The choices are based on the individual’s ability to evaluate and prioritize desires and recognize motivations and ascribe to them values of right and wrong. (Watson, 1987, p. 217) From these values we make the choices that we make and create a civilized and ordered society. However, the challenges of life create blurred lines between what is ethical and what is not. Stem Cell Research Stem Cell is deeply related to personhood. New discoveries in medicine and science technology have pushed the boundaries of medical technology and the mapping of the human DNA has given scientists the blueprint for life and the variables that make it so unique to each person. The controversy surrounding stem cell revolves around the use of embryos to harvest stem cells and use them as potential cures for wide range of illnesses from cancer to Alzheimer’s disease, from spinal cord injuries to lung diseases and most degenerative diseases. (Panno, 2006, p. 76) The curative power of stem cells lies in its undifferentiated state. These stem cells are the progeny of all the kinds of cells and tissues that form in the body. Stem cells can be developed into any kind of cell, replacing those that are aberrant or damaged in the patient’s body. Stem cells can be harvested and then planted into people with illnesses. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 58)   Once inside the body, the stem cells can then be molded into any specific cell that the person needs. Stem cells are present in all individuals, however in adults, the stem cells lose some of their purity and patency and there is a high risk of mismatching and consequent failure to graft. However the bigger issue is that the potential of adult stem cells to differentiate is narrower, meaning that their potential to become other types of cells are limited, often limited to the type of tissue where they came from. Embryo stem cells have no such limitations; they are pluripotent – which means they have the capacity to become any kind of cell in the body. This quality of embryonic stem cells makes them the ideal source for undifferentiated cells that can be used to repair cell and tissue damage. (Holland, Lebacqz, Zoloth, 2001, p. 5) The Emotional Case Against Stem Cell Research Ethical issues arise because embryos or fetal tissues can be used only to be sources of stem cells. These embryos may be used or even destroyed in the course of harvesting and research. The developing fetus does not have the power to refuse such actions and is helpless to do anything about it. Taking the debate further, when the technology has been perfected, there is also the fear of creating embryos only for the purpose of healing someone else’s illness and not for the creation of life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the heart of the debate of stem cell research is personhood and the question of the viability of life. Pro-life groups reiterate the same arguments for abortion as they are doing with stem cell research. They fight for the right of the unborn and argue that life begins upon the meeting of the sperm cell and the egg. Pro-life sections of society argue that stem cell research violate the most basic of human rights and bioethical principles, foremost of which is the principle of informed consent. Implicit to the element of respect for personhood and basic human rights is the concept of informed consent (Merrill 1998). In the medical field, informed consent is legal stipulation that presupposes that patients of legal age agree to have a medical operation or procedure done on them only after being given the full facts of the situation, including the risks that they may face while undergoing said procedure. (Beauchamp Childress 1994, p. 21) This principle extends to experimental and mainstream medical procedures. While it may be argued that the knowledge gained from stem cell research and the potential it has to save millions of lives, the knowledge gained is stained by how it was attained. Certainly there are better ways to harvest and use embryo stem cells and such information could have been obtained using more humane and ethical procedures, one that would not have to entail the destruction and the blatant disregard for human life. The concept of informed consent is grounded on the principle that medical professionals should be able to communicate properly the situation and all the possible risks that the medical intervention may entail. Based on the information given the patient will then weigh whether the benefits of the intervention outweighs the risks and then makes the decision. Informed consent empowers individual to make choices about their own health conditions and what can and cannot be done about it. Health care professionals are legally and ethically bound to engage the patient and involve them in issues that concern their own bodies. (Beauchamp Childress 1994, p. 48). Informed consent, as a manifestation of our basic human right to freedom and dignity is the cornerstone of bioethics. If we are stripped of the right to determine what happens to our own body in the name of medical science, then it is in violation of the very essence of research. However, we disregard such basic rights when it comes to the unborn precisely because they have no capacity to demonstrate their choices and no capacity to deliberate on the consequences. Because embryos have no such abilities, we assume that they do not have the right to be accorded or extended the same rights as we do adult humans. The Case for Stem Cell Research (Proponents) Those who support stem cell research argue that embryos are not viable human beings. Therefore, in the absence of personhood and the viability of life, embryos can be treated as we do any lab animal to further the cause of medical science and cure the many illnesses that beset mankind. Scientists and researchers believe that they are doing a greater good because of the great potential of stem cells to cure heretofore incurable maladies. Indeed, the ability of embryonic stem cells to cure has long been proven and there have been many instances of dramatic life-saving stories involving stem cell. The proponents have scientific data to validate their stand and they make use of the actual lives that have been saved by using stem cells. The point is to advance medical knowledge and improve existing technologies and methodologies. Some also argue that we need to do the research in order to discover ways that would harvest fetal stem cells without destroying it. (Bellomo, 2006, p. 12) Some sacrifices must be made in the refinement of the process and soon a technique may be discovered that would point to a less destructive source of pluripotent stem cells or to some technique that will enable us to create stem cells separate from a fertilized egg. The potential of stem cell research is as unlimited as the potential of the stem cells themselves. The medical community believes in its greater good to cure sick people and to extend to people the healthy and happy life that is also an inherent right of all mankind. Abortion: The Roots of the Debate Against Stem Cell Research Clearly, based on these definitions, personhood is an attempt to define the characteristics that allows us to determine whether an organism is a person or not. Simply, put three elements must be present for personhood: free will, reasoning, and moral decisions. Our actions are constantly being judged as moral or not, and we have the choice whether to ascribe to these moral laws. Of course all of these actions, whether moral or not will then have consequences that the person must deal with. Why should there be a debate in the first place as to what renders a person a human being? The debate is mainly a legal issue. Much of the legal laws that govern most societies are based on personhood and legal debate is also the basis whether an action is illegal or not. One of the most enduring and controversial issues about personhood is the question of when it actually begins. The issue of personhood determines whether stem cell research is morally and legally right. Of course, people on both sides of the fence would arbitrarily argue that personhood is one thing or another, depending on what best suits their purpose. Those who are against stem cell research would argue that personhood begins during conception, while those on the opposite side would maintain that personhood cannot exist during the fetal stage and therefore, there is no actual act of violation to the baby while in this stage. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 89) The debate against stem cell research is intimately tied with issues of abortion. Because stem cell technology is fairly new, there is no judicial precedent yet. However, in terms of personhood and the viability of life debate first came to a head in the watershed Roe vs. Wade (1973) case. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the woman has the right to have an abortion up until a certain time when the fetus becomes â€Å"viable†. Viable in this case is defined as the period when the fetus has the potential to survive outside the womb, regardless of any medical or artificial assistance. This is generally considered to take place during the 6th or 7th month of fetal life. Abortions before this period of viability are then ruled to be permissible if needed to protect the woman’s health. The decision does not legalize abortion but allows it as long as the woman has an abortion before the fetus becomes viable and only for medical reasons (Scott 1990, p. 67). At the heart of the controversy and debate that continues to rage to this day is the respect for both the personhood of the mother and the baby inside her and the stem cells that fetal cells contain. If, by exercising her personhood, the mother decides to harvest the stem cell to help a relative or another child, is she morally wrong or right? Or what if she decides to terminate her pregnancy altogether? What conditions make stem cell harvest legal and when is it not? Of course, the much deeper issue that should be addressed is where do we go off deciding the viability of a fetus and the value of life? The case created a deep schism and polarized a country between those who were pro-life (anti-abortion) and pro-choice (pro-abortion). The decision practically upheld abortion as a basic human right, and is protected by law as long as it is done with within certain narrowly-defined parameters. The woman’s decision to terminate her pregnancy falls under her right to privacy and pe rsonhood. She, being the owner of her body, has the right to deliberate and determine how she wants her own body to be. Roe was a rape victim who got pregnant as a result of the criminal act. She then wanted to have an abortion, arguing that the circumstances of her pregnancy give her moral and legal right to an abortion. Interpretation Perhaps we shall never be able to fully deliberate on the morality and legality of stem cell research because at best, we can only speculate on the viability and personhood of a fetus. In such cases, the value of a human life is debated only when stem cell harvesting becomes an option or when a legal case arises from it. In most cases, there seems to be a consensus that human life begins at the moment of conception and that personhood, as a process, begins also at this time. The controversy of stem cell research and the challenges that it poses to our moral and ethical directions is a reflection of our exercise of personhood. It should be discussed and deliberated and questioned because the failure to do so is the failure of our own collective and individual humanity. And in this case, Fukuyama may be right. Such issues that cause such polarization can very well erode humanity. The Morality of Stem Cell Research Essay Example The Morality of Stem Cell Research Essay Much debate has raged over the influence of nature and nurture on how people behave. Indeed human behavior can be studied by using environmental and biological approaches. However, there is a divergence in beliefs as to the roles of nature and nurture as far as human development is concerned. Fukuyama in his book Our Posthuman Future (2002) believes that science when taken to extreme, would very well be the cause of humanity’s end. The book argues that the manipulation of the very process that define life can create minute but certain changes in our common humanity, thereby altering our collective values underlie our history. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 7) Consequently, the author believes that biotechnology may very well signal a revolution of catastrophic levels and advocates for controlling such rapid advances in medical and biological technology. This paper seeks to analyze this argument by framing it within an existing and controversial issue which is stem cell research. Humanity: A Sense of Personhood What separates humans from animals? That question has long baffled philosophers, psychologists, and scientists alike, because the answers are both simple and complex that any one person can come up theories as to the elements that distinguish humans from other kinds of animals. More than anything else, it is the ability to be deliberate in our choices and actions as we navigate the daily responsibilities of life. The ability to be guided by reason and free will and discern right and wrong separates us from animals (Harre 1998). We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Morality of Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This ability to differentiate and reflect between right and wrong is called personhood. The idea of personhood is something that is intimately tied with our collective consciousness and humanity, which explains why it can be very difficult to define, much less describe within certain parameters. The ideas behind personhood are the basis of fundamental human rights, humanitarian acts, as well as laws and regulations of an ordered society. Personhood may be defined as that innate capacity and right of a person for conscious deliberation and self-determination, based on proper reasoning. Personhood is not merely a function of genetic or organic existence. Much of personhood is an intangible concept that goes beyond simply being labeled as a living organism. Frankfurt (1971, p 6) defines a person as a creature with the capacity to fulfill needs and desires in ways that indicate free will and reasoning. The person is able to identify these needs and desires and acts in deliberation and fr ee will in order to achieve such desires. The person, acting in such capacity, is fully aware of the motivations that lead him or her to such actions. A person is a unique creature and stands apart from other animals because humans have the ability to deliberate on desires and make the appropriate choices and actions based on their free will. The person’s free will and reasoning enables him to make appropriate actions and whether to repress these desires or pursue its fulfillment. Unlike animals that are driven by instinct and basal needs, a person has the ability to exercise his free will and reason and make a choice on what actions to take. Raz (2006, p. 3) elevates the concept of personhood further to emphasize the role of reason in the exercise of free will. Raz maintains that it is reason that determines if an individual is truly using his free will or not. Given a variety of desires and needs, the person, guided by reason, decides on what desires to act on, if at all. T he choices are based on the individual’s ability to evaluate and prioritize desires and recognize motivations and ascribe to them values of right and wrong (Watson 1987, p. 217). Analysis of Ethical Issues Unlike animals that are driven by instinct and basal needs, a person has the ability to exercise his free will and reason and make a choice on what actions to take. Raz (2006, p. 3) elevates the concept of personhood further to emphasize the role of reason in the exercise of free will. Raz maintains that it is reason that determines if an individual is truly using his free will or not. Given a variety of desires and needs, the person, guided by reason, decides on what desires to act on, if at all. The choices are based on the individual’s ability to evaluate and prioritize desires and recognize motivations and ascribe to them values of right and wrong. (Watson, 1987, p. 217) From these values we make the choices that we make and create a civilized and ordered society. However, the challenges of life create blurred lines between what is ethical and what is not. Stem Cell Research Stem Cell is deeply related to personhood. New discoveries in medicine and science technology have pushed the boundaries of medical technology and the mapping of the human DNA has given scientists the blueprint for life and the variables that make it so unique to each person. The controversy surrounding stem cell revolves around the use of embryos to harvest stem cells and use them as potential cures for wide range of illnesses from cancer to Alzheimer’s disease, from spinal cord injuries to lung diseases and most degenerative diseases. (Panno, 2006, p. 76) The curative power of stem cells lies in its undifferentiated state. These stem cells are the progeny of all the kinds of cells and tissues that form in the body. Stem cells can be developed into any kind of cell, replacing those that are aberrant or damaged in the patient’s body. Stem cells can be harvested and then planted into people with illnesses. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 58)   Once inside the body, the stem cells can then be molded into any specific cell that the person needs. Stem cells are present in all individuals, however in adults, the stem cells lose some of their purity and patency and there is a high risk of mismatching and consequent failure to graft. However the bigger issue is that the potential of adult stem cells to differentiate is narrower, meaning that their potential to become other types of cells are limited, often limited to the type of tissue where they came from. Embryo stem cells have no such limitations; they are pluripotent – which means they have the capacity to become any kind of cell in the body. This quality of embryonic stem cells makes them the ideal source for undifferentiated cells that can be used to repair cell and tissue damage. (Holland, Lebacqz, Zoloth, 2001, p. 5) The Emotional Case Against Stem Cell Research Ethical issues arise because embryos or fetal tissues can be used only to be sources of stem cells. These embryos may be used or even destroyed in the course of harvesting and research. The developing fetus does not have the power to refuse such actions and is helpless to do anything about it. Taking the debate further, when the technology has been perfected, there is also the fear of creating embryos only for the purpose of healing someone else’s illness and not for the creation of life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the heart of the debate of stem cell research is personhood and the question of the viability of life. Pro-life groups reiterate the same arguments for abortion as they are doing with stem cell research. They fight for the right of the unborn and argue that life begins upon the meeting of the sperm cell and the egg. Pro-life sections of society argue that stem cell research violate the most basic of human rights and bioethical principles, foremost of which is the principle of informed consent. Implicit to the element of respect for personhood and basic human rights is the concept of informed consent (Merrill 1998). In the medical field, informed consent is legal stipulation that presupposes that patients of legal age agree to have a medical operation or procedure done on them only after being given the full facts of the situation, including the risks that they may face while undergoing said procedure. (Beauchamp Childress 1994, p. 21) This principle extends to experimental and mainstream medical procedures. While it may be argued that the knowledge gained from stem cell research and the potential it has to save millions of lives, the knowledge gained is stained by how it was attained. Certainly there are better ways to harvest and use embryo stem cells and such information could have been obtained using more humane and ethical procedures, one that would not have to entail the destruction and the blatant disregard for human life. The concept of informed consent is grounded on the principle that medical professionals should be able to communicate properly the situation and all the possible risks that the medical intervention may entail. Based on the information given the patient will then weigh whether the benefits of the intervention outweighs the risks and then makes the decision. Informed consent empowers individual to make choices about their own health conditions and what can and cannot be done about it. Health care professionals are legally and ethically bound to engage the patient and involve them in issues that concern their own bodies. (Beauchamp Childress 1994, p. 48). Informed consent, as a manifestation of our basic human right to freedom and dignity is the cornerstone of bioethics. If we are stripped of the right to determine what happens to our own body in the name of medical science, then it is in violation of the very essence of research. However, we disregard such basic rights when it comes to the unborn precisely because they have no capacity to demonstrate their choices and no capacity to deliberate on the consequences. Because embryos have no such abilities, we assume that they do not have the right to be accorded or extended the same rights as we do adult humans. The Case for Stem Cell Research (Proponents) Those who support stem cell research argue that embryos are not viable human beings. Therefore, in the absence of personhood and the viability of life, embryos can be treated as we do any lab animal to further the cause of medical science and cure the many illnesses that beset mankind. Scientists and researchers believe that they are doing a greater good because of the great potential of stem cells to cure heretofore incurable maladies. Indeed, the ability of embryonic stem cells to cure has long been proven and there have been many instances of dramatic life-saving stories involving stem cell. The proponents have scientific data to validate their stand and they make use of the actual lives that have been saved by using stem cells. The point is to advance medical knowledge and improve existing technologies and methodologies. Some also argue that we need to do the research in order to discover ways that would harvest fetal stem cells without destroying it. (Bellomo, 2006, p. 12) Some sacrifices must be made in the refinement of the process and soon a technique may be discovered that would point to a less destructive source of pluripotent stem cells or to some technique that will enable us to create stem cells separate from a fertilized egg. The potential of stem cell research is as unlimited as the potential of the stem cells themselves. The medical community believes in its greater good to cure sick people and to extend to people the healthy and happy life that is also an inherent right of all mankind. Abortion: The Roots of the Debate Against Stem Cell Research Clearly, based on these definitions, personhood is an attempt to define the characteristics that allows us to determine whether an organism is a person or not. Simply, put three elements must be present for personhood: free will, reasoning, and moral decisions. Our actions are constantly being judged as moral or not, and we have the choice whether to ascribe to these moral laws. Of course all of these actions, whether moral or not will then have consequences that the person must deal with. Why should there be a debate in the first place as to what renders a person a human being? The debate is mainly a legal issue. Much of the legal laws that govern most societies are based on personhood and legal debate is also the basis whether an action is illegal or not. One of the most enduring and controversial issues about personhood is the question of when it actually begins. The issue of personhood determines whether stem cell research is morally and legally right. Of course, people on both sides of the fence would arbitrarily argue that personhood is one thing or another, depending on what best suits their purpose. Those who are against stem cell research would argue that personhood begins during conception, while those on the opposite side would maintain that personhood cannot exist during the fetal stage and therefore, there is no actual act of violation to the baby while in this stage. (Fukuyama, 2002, p. 89) The debate against stem cell research is intimately tied with issues of abortion. Because stem cell technology is fairly new, there is no judicial precedent yet. However, in terms of personhood and the viability of life debate first came to a head in the watershed Roe vs. Wade (1973) case. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the woman has the right to have an abortion up until a certain time when the fetus becomes â€Å"viable†. Viable in this case is defined as the period when the fetus has the potential to survive outside the womb, regardless of any medical or artificial assistance. This is generally considered to take place during the 6th or 7th month of fetal life. Abortions before this period of viability are then ruled to be permissible if needed to protect the woman’s health. The decision does not legalize abortion but allows it as long as the woman has an abortion before the fetus becomes viable and only for medical reasons (Scott 1990, p. 67). At the heart of the controversy and debate that continues to rage to this day is the respect for both the personhood of the mother and the baby inside her and the stem cells that fetal cells contain. If, by exercising her personhood, the mother decides to harvest the stem cell to help a relative or another child, is she morally wrong or right? Or what if she decides to terminate her pregnancy altogether? What conditions make stem cell harvest legal and when is it not? Of course, the much deeper issue that should be addressed is where do we go off deciding the viability of a fetus and the value of life? The case created a deep schism and polarized a country between those who were pro-life (anti-abortion) and pro-choice (pro-abortion). The decision practically upheld abortion as a basic human right, and is protected by law as long as it is done with within certain narrowly-defined parameters. The woman’s decision to terminate her pregnancy falls under her right to privacy and pe rsonhood. She, being the owner of her body, has the right to deliberate and determine how she wants her own body to be. Roe was a rape victim who got pregnant as a result of the criminal act. She then wanted to have an abortion, arguing that the circumstances of her pregnancy give her moral and legal right to an abortion. Interpretation Perhaps we shall never be able to fully deliberate on the morality and legality of stem cell research because at best, we can only speculate on the viability and personhood of a fetus. In such cases, the value of a human life is debated only when stem cell harvesting becomes an option or when a legal case arises from it. In most cases, there seems to be a consensus that human life begins at the moment of conception and that personhood, as a process, begins also at this time. The controversy of stem cell research and the challenges that it poses to our moral and ethical directions is a reflection of our exercise of personhood. It should be discussed and deliberated and questioned because the failure to do so is the failure of our own collective and individual humanity. And in this case, Fukuyama may be right. Such issues that cause such polarization can very well erode humanity.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Feng Shui of Your Kitchens Architecture

The Feng Shui of Your Kitchen's Architecture Modern-day architects and believers in the ancient Eastern art, feng shui, agree: When it comes to home design, the kitchen is king. After all, its human nature to associate food and cooking with nurturing and sustenance.   Feng shui practitioners suggest that how you design and decorate the kitchen can influence your prosperity and health. Architects from the Western world may not talk about the ancient art of feng shui, but theyll intuitively figure out the energies of space. Chi, or Universal Energy in feng shui, is compatible with universal design and accessibility in architectural practice. Both share many of the same core beliefs, so lets look at some basic feng shui ideas and see how they apply to modern kitchen design. You Gotta Believe: The Disclaimer The first thing to bear in mind when considering any feng shui advice is that ultimately, feng shui is a complex practice with several different schools. Recommendations will vary from school to school and from one practitioner to another. So too, advice will differ depending upon the particular home - and the unique people living in it. Yet, despite their diverse views, feng shui practitioners will agree on basic principles for kitchen design. Placement: Wheres the Kitchen? When you first plan to build a new home, where should you put the kitchen? We can’t always decide where each room in a house or apartment will be in relation to the others, but if you’re working with new construction or doing extensive renovations, ideally the kitchen will be in the back of the house, at least behind the center line of the house. In any case, it’s better if you don’t see the kitchen immediately upon entering the house, as this can portend digestive, nutritional, and eating problems. Having the kitchen at the entry point can also mean that guests will come over and eat and then leave immediately. Such a placement can also encourage the inhabitants to eat all the time. But if your kitchen is in the front of the house, don’t panic.  Use this as an opportunity to get creative. One easy solution is to hang sheer or beaded curtains over the kitchen door. A more elegant way to redirect space ot to install louvered doors or a sheer sliding panel like an installed Japanese silk screen. The point is to command the direction of energy within the homes space. Provide something delightfully eye-catching across a hall or in a vestibule near the kitchen. That way, attention is diverted from the busy kitchen. Sliding Panel Doors Can Hide Kitchen Spaces. Ben Rahn/Construction Photography/Avalon/Getty Images (cropped) Kitchen Layout Its important for the cook to be in a commanding position when at the stove. The cook should be able to clearly see the doorway without turning away from the stove. This is also good accessibility practice, especially for the deaf. Renovating a kitchen to this configuration can be particularly challenging. Many modern kitchens place the range facing the wall. To resolve the problem, some feng shui consultants recommend hanging something reflective, such as a mirror or a shiny sheet of decorative aluminum, over the stove. The reflective surface can be any size, but the bigger it is, the more powerful the correction will be. For a more dramatic solution, consider installing a cooking island. Placing the stove in a central island allows the cook to see the entire room, including the doorway. Beyond the feng shui benefits, a cooking island is practical. The wider your view, the more you’ll be able to comfortably talk with dinner guests or keep an eye on the kids as you - or they - prepare the meal. Natural Lighting Enhanced by Task Lighting Flow Into Open Spaces. Mel Curtis/Getty Images (cropped) About Cooking Islands Cooking islands have become a popular trend in kitchen design. According to Guita Behbin, owner of Duramaid Industries (a kitchen and bath design and renovation company) many customers want their kitchens to flow into an open space, or Great Room, that includes a living and dining area. Designing a kitchen around a cooking island will help keep the cook involved in whatever is happening in that Great Room, whether it’s before-dinner conversation or hearing about a childs homework. Feng shui-inspired kitchen design dovetails with the contemporary trend toward group cooking. Instead of isolating the cook, families and guests often gather in the kitchen and participate in the meal preparation. Busy working couples use dinner preparation as an important time to unwind together. Cooking with kids becomes a way to teach responsibility and build self-esteem. The Triangle According to Sheffield feng shui course instructor Marelan Toole, good kitchen design is based on a traditional triangle model, with the sink, refrigerator and range making up each point of the triangle (view example). There should be a six-to-eight-foot distance between each appliance. This distance allows for maximum convenience and a minimum of repeated moves. Providing space between each of the major appliances will help you follow a core feng shui principle. Separate the fire elements - such as the stove and microwave - from water elements - such as the refrigerator, dishwasher, and sink. You may use wood to separate these elements, or you can use a plant or a painting of a plant to suggest a wooden divider. The feng shui element of fire is expressed with the triangular shape. In the kitchen, controlling fire is a good thing, whether youre an architect or a feng shui consultant. Sink, Refrigerator, and Range At Points of a Triangle. Adrianna Williams, Bill Diodato/Getty Images (cropped) Kitchen Lighting In any room, fluorescent lights do not promote good health. They constantly flicker, affecting the eyes and nervous system. Fluorescent lights can cause hypertension, eyestrain and headaches. However, they do serve a purpose, as they provide bright light at low cost. Light energy will influence your kitchens energy. If you decide that you do need fluorescent lights in your kitchen, use full-spectrum bulbs. Energy-efficient lighting and appliances are characteristics of both feng shui practices and green architecture. The Kitchen Stove Because the stove represents health and wealth, you want to use the burners on the stove top equally, rotating their use rather than habitually using a particular burner. Changing burners  represents getting money from multiple sources. Of course, the practice can also be seen as a practical step, similar to rotating the tires on a car. The old-fashioned stove, as opposed to a microwave, is often preferred because it is more in keeping with the feng shui belief that we should slow down, become more conscious of each activity, and do activities with intention. Heating a quick meal in the microwave is certainly convenient, but doing this may not lead to the most serene state of mind. Many feng shui practitioners are concerned with excess radiation and electromagnetic fields and would therefore prefer to avoid the microwave altogether. Obviously, each home and family will have to find their own balance between modern conveniences and optimal feng shui practice. Position the Stove To Enable Interactions. John Slater/Getty Images Clutter As with all rooms in the house, the kitchen should be kept neat and uncluttered. Clear your counters of everything. Store appliances in cabinets. Any broken appliances should be tossed out. Even if it means living without a toaster for a while, it’s better to have no toaster than one that doesn’t work very well. Also, remember to keep kitchen areas clean. Good Energy A Practical Design In some cases, building code regulations actually reflect good feng shui principles. Some codes make it illegal to place a window over the stove. Feng shui teaches us that windows should not be placed over stoves because heat represents prosperity, and you don’t want your prosperity flooding out the window. Luckily, feng sShui isn’t only about having a room with good chi, or energy. Feng shui is also a practical guide for design. For this reason, feng shui can be used with any style of room. The most popular styles often repeat as trends, according to kitchen design specialist Guita Behbin: the simple Shaker style seems to always be trending; a very contemporary look, with solid colors and wood grains is often popular; in some situations, a very opulent look makes a statement, with carvings, corbels, and cabinets on legs. Any of these styles can be successfully combined with the principles of feng shui to make for a kitchen that’s functional, up-to-date, and easy on the chi. It is truly amazing how much the ancient feng shui beliefs have to tell us about the design of modern kitchens. What type of lights should you install in your new kitchen? Where should you place the appliances? Architects and believers of this ancient Eastern art offer solutions, and their ideas are surprisingly similar. East or West, good design rules the day. Source Content adapted from an article by Nurit Schwarzbaum and Sarah Van Arsdale, courtesy of the online Sheffield School of Interior Design at www.sheffield.edu, now the New York Institute of Art and Design (NYIAD) at https://www.nyiad.edu/.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Police wasting time - Emphasis

Police wasting time Police wasting time The police often have a hand in giving out long sentences. Now theyre writing them. A potentially record-breaking 102-word single sentence appears in the Association of Chief Police Officers comeback to a government report on policing. Heres the offending passage (note do not attempt to read this before operating heavy machinery): The promise of reform which the Green Paper heralds holds much for the public and Service alike; local policing, customized to local need with authentic answerability, strengthened accountabilities at force level through reforms to police authorities and HMIC, performance management at the service of localities with targets and plans tailored to local needs, the end of centrally engineered one size fits all initiatives, an intelligent approach to cutting red tape through redesign of processes and cultures, a renewed emphasis on strategic development so as to better equip our service to meet the amorphous challenges of managing cross force harms, risks and opportunities. If you made it to the end: well done. This kind of meandering, jargon-heavy sentence would almost certainly lose most readers a quarter of the way through: 35 words should be the maximum length in such a document. Although a spokeswoman did hold her hands up on behalf of the police chiefs verbosity, she also posed the defence that the piece was written primarily to persuade civil servants. She claimed it was therefore written in a language familiar to them. The civil servants weve worked with certainly deserve a lot better. But if shes right about ACPOs audience, its little wonder that were all prisoners to paperwork.