Thursday, October 31, 2019

MIH548 - Theory Based Research - Mod 1 SLP Essay

MIH548 - Theory Based Research - Mod 1 SLP - Essay Example Since these are chromic acquired diseases, these are preventable. Again current research has indicated that physical activity should be promoted as a public health measure in order to prevent these conditions, and absence of many of these conditions in itself is physical wellbeing. However, public health policies have failed to promote physical activities in a large scale across communities, and thus there must be a gap in understanding these barriers in implementation. This calls for a theoretical research in order to update the current knowledge and to identify any gap in the knowledge, so a practical guideline for the physical activity promotion may be created. In order to do that three studies on the topic of association between physical activity and wellbeing will be chosen for critical review, so a summary of theory of this association can be made based on these studies. Thus based on key words â€Å"physical activity† and â€Å"wellbeing† a literature search was conducted in the ProQuest database, and three very recent articles were identified to critically review them in order to establish the association. Since â€Å"wellbeing† is a term that is age nonspecific, the selection criteria would include research done on any age group. Some mental health studies were located which correlated between physical activity and mental health, and it was decided that at least one study will be included in the review which examines public health implications of physical activity from the mental wellbeing point of view. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 17 weeks of micronutrient supplement as opposed to physical exercise on the psychological wellbeing in the elderly population. The sample chosen was a group of 139 frail elderly subjects who were living in independent living facilities. All the participants at baseline were physical inactive due to frailty with either weight loss or body mass index of less

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Famous Trial of Scott Lee Petersen Essay Example for Free

Famous Trial of Scott Lee Petersen Essay Born on October 2nd 1974 in San Diego California, Scott Lee Peterson, an American, was convicted of the murder of his 8-months pregnant wife, Laci Peterson, and their unborn son- Peter Conner. Â  Peterson’s parents were Lee Arthur Peterson and Jacqueline Helen Latham. Arthur was employed by a trucking company and later ventured into crate-packaging. Jacqueline owned the Put On boutique in La Jolla California. Lee Peterson was employed as a caddy at a golf course while schooling at the University of San Diego High School. The young Peterson was a golfer at school. He later attended California Polytechnic State University. Scott met Laci Rocha while working as a waiter at San Luis Obispo cafe as he was studying at California Polytechnic. Scott married Laci in August 1997. Scott and Arthur Peterson alleged that Phil Michelson was known to Scott. Arthur asserted that his son and Michelson were friends and that Scott abandoned his ambitions of being a professional golfer due to the fact that Scott couldn’t match Michelson’s prowess (Lee, 2004, 17). Mickelson said that he couldn’t remember Scott. Laci Peterson’s disappearance Laci was reported missing from their home in Modesto California on 24th December 2002 by Arthur Peterson. Laci was due to deliver on February 10th 2003. Scotts and Laci’s families, Scott and the Modesto community addressed press gatherings. A witness observed that Scott had initially said that he was golfing and later claimed that he was fishing at Berkeley marina when Laci disappeared. Laci’s and Conner’s bodies were discovered on different dates five kilometers from the place Scott was supposed to be fishing. Conner’s body was found on April 13th 2003 and Laci’s on April 14th. Peterson was not initially regarded as a prime suspect by the police mainly because Laci’s friends and family believed Peterson was innocent at the outset. Contradictions in Peterson’s statements later led police to grow suspicious of him. Petersons many extramarital affairs came to the fore on 17th January 2003, the latest being with Amber Frey, a massage expert. Frey sought police assistance when she learnt that Peterson was not honest with her since by lying to her about his marriage. Frey was suspicious of Peterson owing to the disappearance of his wife, the existence of whom he had hidden from Frey ( Laci’s family stopped presuming Scott’s innocence. The family was not incensed by the illicit affair but by Peterson’s statement to Frey that he had lost his wife and that he would be spending his first Christmas without a wife 15 days before Laci’s disappearance. Frey construed Scott’s statement to imply that he was a widower. The family was convinced that Scott had pre-planned Laci’s murder before her actual disappearance. Frey was recruited as a major witness against Peterson after she conceded to police taping of her subsequent conversations with Scott. The motive was to induce Scott to confess, an act he never did. Frey’ and Peterson’ phone conversations recordings were played at the trial and the transcripts made public. Peterson’s character was dented by the recordings which also deeply implicated Scott. It was adduced that Scott lied to Amber that he had traveled to Paris on holiday with his new partners Pasqual and Francois after Laci’s disappearance. However, Scott was actually attending Laci’s candlelit vigil at the New Year’s Eve when he had one of the conversations. Recovery of bodies A male fetus was found on 14th April 2003 on San Francisco Bay in Richmond’s Point Isabel region’s shoreline. The body had been washed ashore north of Berkeley Marina where Scott had been boating at the time of Laci’s disappearance. An incomplete female torso without feet, hands and head was washed ashore on April 15th in the same locality. The bodies were identified to be Laci’s and Conner’s but due to putrefaction autopsies couldn’t determine the exact time and cause of death. Laci had her 5th, 6th and 9th ribs broken before death, injuries not resulting from dragging of the body along the bay rocks. It was assumed that Laci had been strangled or suffocated in the Modesto home. The FBI and Modesto Police Department undertook forensic searches at the Modesto home, Scott’s tool box, Scott’s truck, his warehouse and his boat. The single evidence adduced was a single strand of hair presumed to be Laci’s on pliers found on Scott’s boat (Lee, 2004, 32). Peterson’s arrest Detective Taylor Burlingame arrested Scott on 18th April 2003 in La Jolla California at a golf course’s parking lot. Peterson alleged that he was due to play golf with his father and Zak O’regan, his brother, at Torrey Pines golf course. Several golf-irrelevant items were found on Scott at his arrest. Peterson had: 4 cell phones, $ 15,000 in cash, his family members credit cards, camping gear (knifes, food warming equipment, tarpaulins, tents, water purifier), twelve pairs of shoes, a gun, changes of clothing, a map to Frey’s workplace printed on the same day, a shovel, a T-handled double –edged knife, rope, Viagra, 24 packs of sleeping pills, and a brothers drivers license. Scoot had also dyed his hair and beard blond, but he alleged that the color resulted from chlorine after swimming at a friend’s pool. The said friend later asserted that Peterson had never used his pool or his hot tub. Police concluded that Peterson was planning to escape probably to Mexico (Posey, 2005, 50). The trial of Scott Peterson The Stanislaus County Public Defenders Office was assigned to be Peterson’s defense on Scott’s request. Kent Faulkner, Chief Deputy Public Defender and Maureen Keller, Deputy Public Defender, were the attorneys in the case. Later Peterson chose to hire attorney Mark Geragos as private counsel. Owing to mounting hostility to Scott and much media attention, Peterson’s trial was transferred from Modesto to Redwood City, California. The People of the State of California vs. Scott Peterson trial was opened in June 2004 with Rick Distaso as lead prosecutor. Amber Frey, the prosecution witness, hired attorney Gloria Allred, not subject to the gag order, to protect her privacy from the press. She held that Frey couldn’t confirm or deny Peterson’s guilty. Allred appeared severally on TV criticizing the defense thus displaying her solidarity with the prosecution (Graber, 1997, 5). Defense lawyers at Peterson’s case capitalized on the lack of evidence and quashed circumstantial evidence. They argued that Conner was a full-grown infant and suggested that somebody else had abducted Laci, detained her up to birth and dumped the two bodies. Geragos had Dr. Charles March to show that Conner died one week after the prosecutors’ time estimates. Â  The prosecutions’ medical team proved that Conner had not fully grown and that Laci and the baby died simultaneously. Geragos argued that a satanic cult had kidnapped the expectant woman. Peterson was viewed as an immoral person for cheating on his wife but not a murderer. One juror was eliminated earlier in the trial owing to misconduct and replaced by an alternate. This followed CourtTV’s complaint that Laci’s older brother, Brent Rocha and the juror exchanged words in court. Â  A video footage was shown to lend credence to these claims ( Gregory Jackson, a medical student and the jury foreman, was later removed on his request made during jury deliberations. Jackson could have asked to be removed because he was due for replacement although Geragos indicated that Jackson had been threatened. An alternate replaced Jackson. Peterson was found to be guilty of first-degree murder with special circumstances for killing his wife and second degree murder for killing Conner on 12th November 2004. The trial’s punishment period commenced on 30th November and ended on 13th December. The twelve-member jury recommended death sentence for Peterson on 13th December at 1:50 PM PST (Scott, 2008, 7). The jury indicated that Scott’s behavior particularly his lack of remorse and his phone conversation with Amber after Laci’s disappearance pointed to his guilt. The sentence was based on the many circumstantial evidence details deduced from the trial. Petersons absconding of his duty to protect his family also earned him the verdict. Evidence The evidence was purely circumstantial. Peterson altered his looks to camouflage himself from the press and purchased a car in his mother’s name. A day after Laci’s disappearance, Scott subscribed to 2 hardcore pornography TV channels, a pointer that he was sure his wife would not return. Scott wanted to sell the family home and he sold Laci’s land rover. A United States Hydrological Survey hydrologist, Ralph Cheng also a San Francisco Bay tides expert, and a witness said that tides aren’t violent enough to drown person. Cheng also couldn’t explain how the bodies were transported and deposited. Peterson’s affair with Amber and the conversations they had was also evidence for Scott’s guilt (Scott, 2008, 9). Motives The prosecution surmised that Peterson killed his wife owing to his affair with Amber. Increasing debt and a yearning to be free from coming family obligations could also be one of Scott’s motives. Sentencing Judge Alfred A. Delluchi sentenced Peterson to death by lethal injection on 16th march 2005. Defense’s requests for a re-trial pleading juror misconduct and media meddling in the earlier trial were quashed. Peterson was taken to San Quentin State Prison on 17th March 2005. His case is on automatic appeal to the Supreme Court of California in Sacramento. Legacy A TV film starring Dean Cain was aired in 2004. Amber Frey published a book detailing her experiences with Scott Peterson in January 2005. Richelle Nice, a member of jury in Scott’s case, is one of Peterson’s correspondents in prison. Â  Conclusion Since Petersons trial was based solely on circumstantial evidence, rules of natural justice dictate that a retrial should be done to try to adduce concrete evidence against Scott. The failure to determine the exact time and cause of Conner and Laci is also a pointer that Peterson’s case was not conclusive. Scott could be suffering innocently in prison.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Fine Art, Photography And Influence In Dadaism

Fine Art, Photography And Influence In Dadaism Photography has played a controversial but an important role in the arts for the last 150 years. The question is still debated whether photography is an art or a form of documentation seen by the eye instead of the mind. Since its beginnings, photography, as an art form has been questioned the view is that photography is not an art, but a form of mechanical reproduction, it was slandered as being more technological than creative. Dadaists, in contrast, embraced photography, enjoying its modern means of creation. Their experiments with the medium include use of double exposures, radical perspective, and unconventional subjects. Dadaists also experimented with photograms, camera-less photographic prints that record the placement of objects on photosensitive paper that has been exposed to light; these are among some of the earliest abstract photographs. The Dadaists were the first artists to abandon conventional materials and techniques.Raoul Haussmann, John Heartfield, and Hannah Hoch invented photo-montage a collage of separate photographs that is re-photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print. The original aim of the Movement was far removed from the world of art, and was primarily political in nature. To its supporters Dada was not art, it was anti art, and for everything art stood for dada was to represent the opposite they wanted to affect all aspects of Western civilization, to take part in the revolutionary changes which were the inevitable result of the chaos of the First World War They were not interested in painting pictures which the public would admire in an detached manner, they wanted to provoke the public into reacting to their activities. To the Dadaists, a violently negative reaction was better than a passive acceptance. The artwork consisted of photomontages paintings, advertisements, collages, poetry, essays, leaflets and combinations of multiple art forms. Dada influenced almost every artistic principle of our time. Protests in the US during the 1960s copied those of the Dadaists during and after the World Wars. Dada artists developed new techniques of collage and montage and pioneered the use of materials such as newspaper clippings and postcards in their works. A weaving together of photographs and paper to create a new artistic image The main representatives of Dadaism were Hans Arp, Marcel Duchamp, Hugo ball, Francis Picabia, Max Ernst, Raoul Haussmann, Man Ray, John Heartfield Marcel Janco, Kurt Schwitters, Hannah Hoch, Sophie Taeuber Arp. Max Ernst born in Germany, 1891-1976 enrolled at Bonn University in 1909 and studied philosophy, art history, literature, psychology and psychiatry. In 1914 he met Hans Arp a founder member of Dada in Cologne. The two soon became friends and their friendship lasted for fifty years. With the outburst of the First World War Ernst was conscripted to the army,, He fought in France and Poland, in his autobiography he referred to his time in the army On the first of August 1914 Max Ernst died. He was resurrected on the eleventh of November 1918which suggests to me, that a part of himself died when he enlisted in the war, which started on Aug 1st and that the day the war ended 11th Nov he felt hed come alive again .His artwork reflected his experiences in battle using military photographs as source material for photomontages and considering he studied psychology and art history in University , violence and brutality were probably no reflection of the man he was. Pasting together images of planes or bombs with humans, Collage is the exploitation of the chance meeting of two distant realities on an unfamiliar plane -Max Ernst, 1919 The Punching Ball or the Immortality of Buonarroti 1920 Self Portrait Photomontage, gouache, and ink on photograph Painting is not for me either decorative amusement, or the plastic invention of felt reality; it must be every time: invention, discovery, revelation. Max Ernst. Man Ray born Emmanuel Radnitzky1890-1976 an American photographer and painter raised in New York Beginning as a commercial artist in New York, he taught himself photography to reproduce his paintings and mixed media. Man Ray, was the Dadaist most committed to photography, he abandoned painting altogether, and dedicated his art making after 1918 to film and photography. He had his first solo show of paintings and drawings in 1915. His first Dada-style work, an assemblage he called Self-Portrait, was shown in 1916. After meeting Marcel Duchamp, he founded the American branch of the Dada movement. The New York Dadaists tended to be more optimistic than their European counterparts. Dadaist ideas were not really accepted by New Yorkers and Man Ray left America to live and work in Paris in 1921, he set up a photography studio and began making photograms, which he called Rayographs. These Rayographs summarise the essence of Dadaism and Surrealism. His experiments with photography included rediscovering how to make camera less pictures. He made them by placing objects directly on light-sensitive paper, which he exposed to light and developed them In Paris he created one of his best known Dadaist artworks: Indestructible Object (1923), a metronome with a photo of an eye attached to its clicking arm. artists such as James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, and Jean Cocteau posed for Man Rays camera. When Dada dispelled, Ray was already an active Surrealist Man Rays negative portrait of Jacqueline Goddard (1930) initialled by the photographer in pencil, is one of the photographers many images of women. Printed from an auto chrome, as opposed to a conventional negative, the auto chrome, used in place of a negative during the printing process, yielded a photograph with reversed tones and a diffuse luminosity. Man Ray rotated the picture to 90 degrees, so that Goddard who had been lying down during the sitting, appears in the finished print to float in space with her hair streaming dramatically behind her John Heartfield born Helmut Herzfeld 1891 1968 was a German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer and stage designer John Heartfield and his siblings were abandoned by their parents his mother, a political activist, and his father, a socialist writer had to flee Germany to avoid persecution for their political beliefs. The children were raised by relatives and in institutions From 1907 to 1911 John Heartfield studied art at the KÃ ¶nigliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich , specializing in poster design. In the summer of 1916, Germany had been using an offensive nationalistic slogan: Gott Strafe England or May God Punish England. This angered Helmut who protested by changing his name to John Heartfield. John Heartfield played a major role in the Dada Movement, he learned techniques and styles from many other artists who expressed their political ideas through art. His experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art, was that which took account of social realities. He witnessed a country of hungry, desolate people in the midst of chaos during the Second World War, and through his art, protested their suffering. He took a sarcastic approach, condemning the anti-semite and the wealthy industrialists who supported the German army Most of his career was spent declaring his opposition to Hitler and the Nazi Regime and he used his art to protest the violent, greedy governmental control of the Nazi party. His politically charged photomontages were banned in his home country during the Nazi regime In 1939 the Arcade Gallery in London showed one of Heartfields most famous exhibitions, One Mans War against Hitler . This piece is Hearfields interpretation of the Nazi military slogan. Blood dripping from the swastika infers that the military (weapons and soldiers) was all Germany needed for victory. Bismarck had stated that the German people would be reformed through a combination of blood and iron. Heartfields 1934 photomontage shows how this was to be interpreted in reality In my opinion Dada was a radical art form that challenged Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. Dadaists were the first to use photography to create photomontage images which made visible to the world the violence, hypocrisies and chaos of the war and revolution. They used their art and photography as a weapon to express their political dissatisfaction. They weaved together in their photomontages and collages, their thoughts and experiences and associations with the environment and culture they witnessed during their lifetime. Dada seem to me to have been a group of people who stood up an fought back against dictatorship and oppression. While the thunder of guns rolled in the distance, we sang, painted, glued and composed for all our worth. We are seeking an art that would heal mankind from the madness of the age. Jean Arp The photomontage images were created by taking multiple negatives of photos and stacking them together to create a new photo or picture. It is two dimensional with, no perspective or unified point of view. Modern technology today gives us Photoshop and other creative software to create photomontage images, layering and merging photographs together to create new images.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Dreams :: essays research papers

Dear Dr. Universe, Why do we dream? Pat Caraher - Pullman, Washington When I asked Barbara Hammond this question, the first thing she said was, "Who knows?" Barbara Hammond is a psychologist at Washington State University. What she means is that a lot of people have some interesting ideas about dreams. But that's about it. By the time you finish reading this, you'll know much of what we know for certain about dreams. You're about to become a dream expert. One thing we do know is WHEN we dream. That's during a period of sleep called "REM sleep." REM means rapid eye movement. During REM, your eyes are moving around a lot even though they're closed. Your brain is also very busy--and you're dreaming. Hey, I'm no Sigmund Freud, but who's a psychologist to turn to when they have a weird dream they want to talk about? Another thing that happens during REM is that your muscles are basically paralyzed. You know those dreams where you're trying to run away from something, but your legs are really, really heavy? Now back to WHY. According to Ms. Hammond, there are two sets of explanations. First there's the "physiological" set. "Physiological" has to do with how the body works. Some scientists think maybe we dream in order to exercise our brains. When you're awake, messages are constantly speeding among all your billions of brain cells to keep you moving and thinking and digesting and so on. So the idea is that when you're asleep, dreams exercise the "pathways" between the brain cells. Personally, I like this idea of exercising while I sleep. There are a couple of things that help this idea make sense. The first couple years of your life are the most intense for learning. That's also when you have the greatest amount of REM sleep -- which means you probably dream an awful lot. Another thing--your brain waves during REM sleep look about the same as your brain waves while you're awake. (Brain waves are electrical patterns that show up on a machine that measures the brain's activity.) During other parts of sleep, the brain waves look very different. Then there's the "psychological" set of ideas about why we dream. Psychology has to do with your thoughts and emotions. Ms. Hammond says that most dreams are actually about immediate concerns in our lives. Some dreams may help us know more about ourselves. Others might be practice for dealing with daytime problems.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Engage in Personal Development in Health and Social Care Essay

My duty as a childminder is to provide high quality care for children and young people. In order to achieve this I must ensure I am familiar with the EYFS statutory framework (September 2012) and aware of ratio limits in place (3.39 EYFS) I have a duty to provide parents with essential information in order to build successful parent partnerships and help them understand the role of not only myself but Ofsted and the EYFS as well. see more:explain what reflective practice is I have a duty to ensure I have had training and am aware of the Safeguarding and Welfare requirements and the requirements as set out by my LSCB.(3.1 – 3.77 EYFS) I have a duty to ensure I deliver the learning and development requirements as set out in the EYFS statutory framework. I must provide each unique child with opportunities to learn and develop by covering the seven areas of learning (1.1 – 1.13 EYFS) I have a duty to provide an inclusive setting and accommodate where possible for each individual child. I have a duty to regularly assess children in my care with a statutory requirement to provide a progress check at age two. (Sections 2.1 – 2.11) I have a duty to ensure I meet all the legal requirements for paperwork. I have a duty to protect any personal information and records on children including personal details of parents with the exception of safeguarding issues and Ofsted visits. (3.67, 3.68, 3.69 and 3.70) I have a duty to inform the HMRC that I am self-employed and the nature of my business. I am responsible for ensuring that I meet all the requirements of the EYFS and keep up to date with any changes made to it. I am responsible for providing parents with information as set out in the EYFS (3.72) I am responsible for safeguarding every child in my setting. (3.5) I am responsible for implementing policies and procedures to deal with issues effectively (3.3) I am responsible for Risk Assessing (3.63) I am responsible for identifying areas where I may require further training and seek out the relevant courses in order to achieve continuous professional development (3.18 EYFS) I am responsible for my own planning, which will support each unique child’s learning & development in the seven areas. I have a responsibility to  identify next steps for each child (1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 and 1.9 EYFS) I am responsible for identifying where I may need to adapt or provide support, for example a child whose first language is not English (1.8 EYFS) I have a responsibility to ensure that I am aware of where a child is developmentally and that I may use the Early Years Outcomes statements as points of reference in order to identify areas of strength or weakness. It is my responsibility to provide parents with a progress report when a child is aged 2-3. 2.3 EYFS) I have a responsibility to ensure I keep accurate information on children in my care and that all personal information relating to both child and parents is up to date (3.71), keep accurate attendance records, document all accidents and incidents (3.48 & 3.49), keep up to date logs of any fire drills and their outcomes (3.54) I am responsible for registering with the ICO and storing data in a safe secure way (3.69) I am responsible for completion of my tax return and ensuring it is accurate and a true reflection of earnings and expenses. 1.2 Complete the table below describing how the relevant standards apply to your role Relevant Standards Expectations of your own work role EYFS The EYFS sets out the guidelines from which I must work from and it is extremely important I am aware of the legal requirements set out in it. My roles and responsibilities above have been linked to the relevant sections in the EYFS. National Minimum Standards for Regulated Childcare (Wales) National Occupational Standards This sets out a need for me to consider how I will professionally develop within my role. As part of my professional development I have recently completed a SEF. I found this surprisingly beneficial in not only helping me realise my strengths but also for reflecting on how I can go about further improving. I also keep a CPD log and strive to ensure that as a professional I am keeping myself up to date with the sector, be it though the Pacey magazine, online courses or those that I attend ie First Aid, network meetings. I especially like the fact I have gained CPD hours and certificates for the effort I have put in to further develop, it has given me pride in my achievements Job Description My job description helps me to think about what I need to achieve in order to fulfil my role as a childminder. To provide high quality childcare, adhering to the EYFS statutory guidelines with a sound knowledge of the EYO. It is my duty to ensure children are in a positive, happy and safe environment. To have a sound knowledge of first aid and safeguarding procedures and to ensure training is kept up to date. Common Core The common core provides me with skills and knowledge required in order to work with children, young people and families. In my role as a childminder this would be: Successful Parent partnerships & communication with children, including support for those whose primary language may not be English. Sound knowledge of the EYO and how these are used to observe development in children. Aware of safeguarding procedures and children’s welfare. Supporting children and parents through transition periods i.e. starting school. Being aware of data protection and how to protect confidentiality except in the case of safeguarding. Code of Conduct The code of conduct sets out what is expected and required of me. In my job role as a childminder this would be: To remain professional at all times and ensure relevant paperwork is kept up to date. To promote children learning & development. To ensure children’s behaviour is dealt with in a positive way. To promote equal opportunity and embrace diversity. To respect confidentiality at all times with the exception of safeguarding issues. To work in partnership with parents. To ensure no offensive language is used by myself of visitors.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

IRONY the Challenge of Acting Oscar Wilde And George Bernard Shaw essays

IRONY the Challenge of Acting Oscar Wilde And George Bernard Shaw essays the Challenge of Acting Oscar Wilde And George Bernard Shaw Irony is another staple tool of wit in Style acting, and it often seems to come effortlessly to British actors because the British rarely say what they mean. "The speech we hear is an indication of what we don't hear... One way of looking at speech is to say it is a constant stratagem to cover nakedness," says British playwright Harold Pinter. But I notice that some American actors (other than native New Yorkers) are made uneasy by the notion that what they are saying is a decoy from the true intention, that the language distracts from what the character is actually thinking They worry that the underlying meaning is not obvious enough and in their attempts to communicate it they destroy all irony because if it isn't delicate, it's not irony. It's nudge,nudge or worse. Meaning one thing while saying something else is like singing a harmony with yourself, and the dominant tune is the spoken words. If they are convincing in their own right, and the audience realizes the unspoken irony a second later, it's funny. The character need not necessarily grasp the irony: awareness is not always part of the equation. Another form of irony springs from the contradiction between words and actions. When this is deliberate it can be crude, such as "how very amusing" said with a straight face. Action should not reinforce an irony or it will overload it. For example, "I like you already more than I can say" should not be accompanied by a hostile stare. In fact, the action that accompanies irony should be ambiguously appropriate. In other words, it should be capable of being interpreted as the truth by the recipient, and recognizable cover up by the audience. It's a fine line to tread. Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest is a minefield of irony, and you will fall all too easily into leaden unfunniness if the you don't have a light touch.The structure of Oscar Wilde's di ...