Friday, November 29, 2019
Introduction There have been different views on the place that non humans have in any acceptable moral system. The non humans usually lie on the borderline of human moral theories and principles. This means that sometimes they are regarded to have high moral standards and other times they are regarded to have low moral standards (Pluhar 67).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theories of Philosophy on Animals specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is diversity in moral views especially those directed towards animals. There are three broad categories of theories of philosophy on animals. These theories include the indirect theories, moral equality theories and the direct theories. The indirect theory is supported by Immanuel Kant and Descartes. The theory holds that animals cannot be accorded the same treatment and equal moral status as human beings because of lack of reason, consciousness and autonomy. Direct theori es have a contrasting opinion to the ones of the indirect theories. The direct theories hold that animals can be accorded some moral recognition even though they are not accorded full moral status because they lack a sense of rationality and self consciousness. The moral equality theories on the other hand hold that animals should have equal moral status as human beings because animals and human infants have similarities in their mental and physiological capacities (Pluhar 71). The main difference between the direct and the moral equality theory is that the moral equality theory acknowledges that human beings and animals both experience a sense of morality and consciousness and they have almost the same mental and psychological autonomy qualities. The direct theories on the other hand believe that animals have a sense of morality but they do not have any consciousness to execute the morality that they might be having. The theories of moral equality are supported by Tom Regan and Pet er Singer. These philosophers champion for equal moral status for both human beings and animals without any reservations such as the ones held by the direct theories Peter Singer: Equal consideration of interests principles Peter has been advocating for the rights of non humans. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"the place of non humans in environmental issuesÃ¢â¬ , he discusses various environmental issues that affect non humans (Singer 55). Singer advocates for equal consideration of interests in both human beings and animals. He therefore disagrees with the arguments that animals should be afforded less moral status than human beings. He further mentions that environmental effects such as pollution and global warming affect both human beings and animals in the same way. He suggests that these issues should be addressed with the interests of non humans in place (Singer 57). Singer also adds that animals also have sentience and that they can feel pain and suffering and they also have similar nervous systems and therefore the interests of animals must be recognized and respected just as humans respect and recognize the interests of others because they have sentience and consciousness.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Singer believes that the utilitarian approach of maximum considerations should be applied to both humans and animals. He however has reservations about this theory. He believes that the equal considerations do not imply that humans and animals should be treated equally but rather their interests should be treated equally (Singer 57). Singer also believes that humans usually do away with he interest of animals so that they can satisfy theirs. They therefore do not consider the pain and suffering of animals as equal to that of humans. He gives an example of mass poisoning of pests. He explains that even though pests should be controlled, the process s hould be humane and considerations should be taken towards the interests of the animals. From singerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, animals can also suffer and therefore humans should accord them similar treatment as that of human beings. Singer calls this tendency speciesism Tom Regan and the animal rights In his article Ã¢â¬Å"animal rights: what is in a nameÃ¢â¬ he argues that animals have rights just as human beings. He also supports the moral equality theory by attacking the indirect moral theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s anthropocentric view which states that only humans have rights. He disagrees with the view that equal moral status should be accorded on utilitarian grounds only. He believes that the moral status should be based on rights rather than utilitarian concepts. Utilitarian concepts believes that an object only has rights when the society accepts the object and accepts that it should be accorded such rights. The utilitarian concepts hold that people with same qualities should be treated i n the same way as long as both people are accepted equally in the society. ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments relies on the principle of inherent value. According to Regan, both humans and animals have the same values and hence they deserve equal rights (Regan 122). He believes that the inherent value of a human being means that it must be treated with respect. According to Regan, the only thing that confers marginal cases with moral rights similar to normal human beings is the subject of a life (Regan 125) Distinction between the two arguments Singer advocates that we should ensure equal considerations of the interests of humans and animals in our deliberations. Regan on the other hand focuses on the individual with the interests and not the interests themselves. Regan therefore believes that if the focus is on the interests only then immoral actions can be done on the utilitarian grounds. Regan therefore believes that if the focus is solely on rights and interests then when rights and inter ests of two parties are in conflict then the one person may be denied. Singer on the other hand believes that the level of suffering or pain that one party goes through will determine when the rights and interests of those parties should be overridden.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theories of Philosophy on Animals specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In brief ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s argument on the rights of animals revolves around the inherent value concept while singer argues for equal consideration of interests of human beings and animals. Regan therefore holds that human beings should not raise animals for the sake of eating them because this way they will be a means to our end and their rights will not have been exercised Regan versus SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective I think that Singer supported his argument effectively especially when he said that animals also experience pain subjected to them by human beings and that h umans should consider them as equals and hence their interest should also be effectively considered. I believe that this argument is better than ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that we should consider the animals as individuals and not totally focus on the interests. This is because animals and human beings cannot be considered to be totally the same because of their difference in anatomy and the lack of consciousness in animals. SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is therefore better placed because all living things despite being humans or animals have rights and these rights should be respected and honored. Conclusion Moral theories recognize that animals have the same rights and interests as human beings. Singer therefore cements his argument on the principle of equal consideration of interests which states that animals and humans should be given equal rights and interest regarding the environment. Regan on the other hand heavily relies on the concept of inherent value and he argues that utilizing animals as a means to our ends is morally wrong because it denies them from enjoying their rights Works Cited Pluhar, Edgar. Beyond prejudice: the moral significance of human and non human animals. Durham: Duke University Press. 1995. Print Singer, Peterson. Not for humans only: the place of non humans in environmental issues. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. 2008. print This essay on Theories of Philosophy on Animals was written and submitted by user Cecilia Reyes to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
How to Hone the Right Tone in Business Writing Where is the line between personality and professionalism in business writing tone? How much of our personality should shine through our documents? I hear this question about tone in business writing tone often in business writing courses. Many business people mistakenly hide behind templates or use corporate-speak language in an attempt to fit in and "sound professional. "Transparency" is a commonly bantered-about term, but not easily defined. We can easily sound bossy or timid when we don't mean to. Whether we like it or not, we do project an image about our competency, ease, confidence, personality, and skill in every document and message we write at work. Our business writing is a fantastic medium to convey our skills and professionalism and warmth, so we should embrace this and project the right tone. (Or, cultivate this if it needs work.) #1 Define the business writing tone you want to convey about yourself. Varying positions and industries and personalities do require unique tones.Depending on your position and field, it might be: Accessible and smart Supportive and kind Engaged and insightful In charge and the voice of authority Artistic and trendy Authoritarian Snarky but funny and smart (Caution with this. Many bloggers and some consultants adopt this and it works for only a rare few.) I strive for my business writing tone to be knowledgeable and helpful. Let's look at two extremes to find balance: unprofessional too much information (the dreaded TMI) tone contrasted with timid and stilted tone. Here is an actual too much information example, sent via Instant Message as part of an internal project team discussion, that illustrates a lack of professionalism. (This was sent by a female senior marketing manager to her team, comprised of men and women, in the US and abroad, some of whom she knew well and some she had never met): "Be back in a bit to chat away and answer IMs! I am off to work out my booty at break. Going back to Florida in 20 days! WOOT" This fails - badly - because it was irrelevant to any real work discussion and unprofessional. "Booty" isn't an appropriate topic to chat up with business colleagues, unless they are also your very close friends, and even then shouldn't be put in writing. Everything you write at work belongs to your employer and is discoverable in any legal review. I'm guessing no one wants a review of his or her booty workouts as part of a professional evaluation. This example is extremely off the mark because it also was sent to an international audience. Wider audience matters. And, wider audiences have varying perceptions. This writer works in a very casual satellite office located in Los Angeles, California, where communication norms are more relaxed than other areas. It's possible (but unlikely) that this extremely relaxed banter is acceptable within her local, small work group, but we need to keep focus on our wider audience as well. An older businessman from Asia (her boss) sent this example to me because he viewed it as extremely unprofessional. As a condition to keep her job, she was required to work with me to develop an authentic, but professional, voice in all her communication. Conversely, here is an example that is too stiff and timid, sent via email from the head of a work area to colleagues who lead other work areas. While I would love for the needs of all three departments to be factored in, however, I can also appreciate that your respective organizations have its own project list where you may or may not be able to allocate resources to work on this project. If that were the case, then we will take another approach towards selecting a solution. Please let me know your thoughts on this and if you are conceptually in agreement, then the name(s) of people in your respective group who would service as the functional lead on the project. I can then reach out to them to organize a kick-off meeting. If you feel that you will be unable to allocate resources to this project this year, then I would understand and would appreciate you letting me know about that too. This fails - less badly - because the writer's request is so indirect and tentative that it lacks authority. This doesn't convey the tone of someone competently in charge of leading a business unit with clear vision and confidence. #2 How then, can we be authentic and transparent, but not bleed all over our audience or be too timid? How do we hit the right balance? Easy: Always envision your audience. Provide the information that suits your audience's needs. In the first example, by simply considering her wider audience before sending this message, the writer would have known immediately that her international boss would not want to hear about a booty workout. In the second instance, the writer would realize colleagues need competent recommendations, not timid requests. Because we first have defined the tone in business writing that is right for our honest personality and position, we will naturally find the balance by matching this to audience. This works every time. Business communication is not about broadcasting or false personas. It's about connection. I do not advocate self-censorship of personality, beliefs, and way of being, but I do believe we must frame our message so our readers respect it. Too often in business, we forget it's really a human to human connection occurring. It is good business to bring our authentic selves to a mutual meeting place with our audience so we hear each other, so sales are made, skills gained, businesses grow and perspectives widen. Ready to commit to improving your business writing so that it becomes a career asset?
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Google Company - People Management practices - Research Paper Example It mainly specializes in the internet engine and allied advertising services. It primarily operates in the U.S, U.K and other countries in the global scene. It is based in California and employs over 20, 000 people. The company is not only known for its innovation and prowess in technology but also for its special HR practices and culture. Its HR practice is known as Ã¢â¬ËPeople OperationÃ¢â¬â¢ and it is based on value of the employee relationship and respect. This keeps the employees highly motivated and improves their efficiency and productivity. Approach to Employee Rewards and Motivation In the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace, employees are considered to be the most important asset. This is owing to the fact that employees perform basic tasks in the organization that are aimed at achieving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. It is important for employees to perform their duties in a positive environment that motivates them to maintain an optimistic attitude that improves th eir productivity. Google takes employee rewards and motivation seriously and has established motivation and rewards practices. In addition to the competent hiring process, Google employs compensation practices to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals. GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s reward and compensation system is pay for performance based (Great Place to work, 2009). This means that the employees are motivated to deliver quality output so as to get a higher pay. Additionally, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock option organization ensures that employees get rewarded for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s equity linked growth. It was surprising that all the workers requested for a wage reduction in the year 2005 to 2006. These benefits and rewards help the company to recruit employees and motivate them towards achieving the goals and objectives. The employees take part in a wide range of extra curricula activities such as cycling, wine tasting and travelling which keeps them highly motivated and have the desired to work in the company throughout their lives. The company was ranked as the best workplace in the U.S by Fortune magazine in 2009 (Datamonitor, 2009). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to provide rewards and do away with all the obstacles that get in the way of their duties and responsibilities. Some of the rewards include top class dining facilities, laundry rooms, gyms, massage rooms, carwashes, dry cleaning and commuting services. The company believes in the provision of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards owing to the fact that employees are not motivated by monetary incentives alone. This explains the reason why the company has established a culture that highly rewards and motivates employees. One of the best ways of maintaining the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is by maintaining rewards. Together with its compensation and conventional extrinsic benefits including health and dental benefits, vacation packages, insurance, tuition reimbursement and flex spending accounts, the company also ha s unique benefits. These include an eighteen weeks maternity period at full pay. Additionally, parents get extra benefits during this period that make things easier. They are provided with an allowance to cater for the meals of the newborn and a back- up childcare plan. The company also contributes towards the legal expenses associated with child adoption. These are just some of the extrinsic rewards offered at Google. However, it is clear to note that people who work at the company are motivated by other reasons besides the rewards. They enjoy the freedom and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Discussion question - Assignment Example The model looks to the safety of patients, and their care as far as health coordination system is concerned. It also oversees the provision of self-management skills to the patients (Stellefson, Dipnarine & Stopka, 2013). The chronic care model is being used to care for diabetes patients in the United States in the basic care setting. The model is supposed to measure the indicators of the disease for example self-efficacy for disease management and clinical decision-making. It is designed address the needs of people suffering from chronic diseases. Stellefson, Dipnarine and Stopka (2013) insist that there is a need for increased skills in the management of chronic diseases. And more so in the primary care setting where there is much need for a better leadership and quality caregiving and also improved practice. Advanced Practice Nurses are well suited in this area because they have skills and can address the nature of chronic diseases that require complex
Monday, November 18, 2019
Literature Review - Essay Example Anxiety disorders are common in the contemporary society and causes suffering on people that are adversely affect members of the population. Research has shown that anxiety disorders are the most common mental issues as explained by Kessler et al. (2005:617). Large scale epidemiological studies conducted in the US have shown that 25-30 percent (Kessler et al. 2005:618). It can be observed that other surveys that were conducted in Western nations such as Great Britain, Canada and Australia (Andrews et al., 2001:143). Additionally, anxiety was found to be the leading mental health issue by the World Health Organisation. In addition to the high occurrence rates of anxiety issues that were found in the population, a considerable number of individuals were found to have anxiety levels that are not up to the clinical levels. Worry is the major indicator of the anxiety disorders that is common among the general population. Numerous studies have been conducted on the role of physical exercise in preventing exercise. Others have concentrated on the efficiency of exercise in alleviating anxiety disorders. These studies have stated that there is a link between frequent physical exercise and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being. According to Steptoe and Butler (1996:1792) a research that was conducted on 5061 people revealed that there is a well-established correlation between emotional well-being and regular physical exercise. Later Steptoe (1997) found that there was a strong inverse connection between frequent exercise and depression levels in a sample of 16, 483 participants of college students after taking into account the impacts of gender and age. Subsequently, Stephens (1988:45) conducted a research on American and Canadian participants and found a similar trend. This means that there was a negative relationship between frequent exercise and depression symptoms. In this study factors including physical illness, sex, age and other
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Effectiveness of Leech Therapy It has been estimated that there are about 60,000 miles or more blood vessels within a human body where blood, gases and nutrients are being circulated. Any blockage of these vessels will cause blood congestion at the site and thus give rise to various vascular diseases. For instance, a congested coronary artery will cause heart attacks, and a congested carotid artery will cause strokes. Other common examples are inflammatory reactions, haematomas, deep vein thrombosis, and so on. Hidurotherapy, also known as the leech therapy, is an ancient remedy now being revived and evaluated scientifically, hoping that it could be a one cure for all these diseases and provide a much more effective yet safer treatment. So, how a leech can cure and is it really more effective over currently used drugs in treating vascular congestion and related diseases? The mechanism behind hidurotherapy can be simplified as such: when a leech bites a target, the patient will not feel much pain because its saliva contains special anaesthetics. It then starts its active feeding by sucking the blood. At the same time, the saliva which also contains various components that prevent the formation of blood clot at the wound and allow it to flow continuously for hours even after the leech has been removed. This situation is known as passive bleeding. I have classified the leech treatment into 3 common types based on these effects of saliva contents and their applications. Type 1: Hirudin as an anticoagulant It has been recognised that the acute coronary syndromes involving the atherosclerotic plaques or thrombus has direct connection to the thrombin in the blood. Thrombin triggers platelet aggregation and gives rise to fibrin clot formation. Intravenous heparin, aspirin, and anti-ischemic medications are the standard treatments provided by hospitals. Hirudin appears to have more advantages when compared to heparin. It can act independently while heparin works indirectly with anti-thrombin III as its cofactor. As a result of this, heparin is not effective when it comes to the fibrin clot that already has thrombin bounded to it. In addition, platelet factor 4 or plasma proteins might neutralise the effect of heparin. Some patients might even develop thrombocytopenia, which affects 5 to 15 percent of the patient population. In such cases, hirudin is highly selective for thrombin and is not affected by peptides and enzymes in the blood. It binds with thrombin to form an inactive hirudin-thrombin complex and halts the conversion of fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. Another highlight of hirudin would be its stability as its form can remain unchanged when it is removed from the body through urination. Overdosage of hirudin is very rare, if such cases really happen, there is no antidote because no antagonists for it have been found. This would be the disadvantage of hirudin but its usage remains safe as long as the doctors prescribe living leeches according to standard recommendations. In a research, patients with acute coronary syndromes were randomly given either intravenous heparin and hirudin placebo or hidurin and heparin placebo on a double blind basis. This led to the possibility of comparing the effect of hirudin and heparin in treating coronary syndromes and preventing deaths. The outcome results showed that hirudin had significantly decreased the risk of death or myocardial infarction or reinfarction over hours of study compared to heparin. In long term, hirudin still displays significant advantage over heparin in reducing the risk of death or myocardial infarction or reinfarction. Type 2: Removal of blood via active feeding and passive bleeding Detached body tissues or limbs can be reattached, transferred or transplanted through modern reconstructive surgeries. Microsurgical techniques are being used to restore the blood vessels supplying blood and oxygen to the connecting tissues or limbs to enable their survival. However, often we see that after a complicated reconstructive surgery, venous congestion occurs at the connecting tissues due to the formation of blood clot after a venous outflow. Thus, the blood cannot be circulated and the tissue flap will eventually die off and is lost if the congestion prolonged. It is then vital to remove excess blood accumulated at the site so that risk of cell death can be minimised. Moreover, it provides time for the ingrowth of new venous outflow from the surrounding normal tissues. Surgical revision is rarely possible or successful to fix the problem. When venous congestion threatens a tissue flap, live medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are placed on the congested tissue to remove excess blood. The application of medicinal leeches to a congested tissue flap reportedly increases blood flow within congested tissue directly via active feeding and indirectly by passive bleeding from the bite after the leech detaches. The continued passive emission of blood following leech detachment assists in the decongestion process. It is facilitated by the actions and interactions among different salivary secretions of the leech, and platelet aggregation inhibitors. Type 3: Effects of other substances in the leech saliva As the leech saliva also contains anti-inflammatory and anaesthetics substances, the patient will feel no pain being bitten. This special effect attributes towards the treatment of diseases such as arthritis of the joint. Although arthritis belongs to immunological disorder, the inflammation around the joints causes pain to the patients. Therefore, leech therapy might be useful in soothing the pain suffered with the anti-inflammatory and anaesthetics substances. A study designed by researchers from Germanys Academic Teaching Hospital showed that one application of leeches to the area can reduce pain 60% for more than 60 days. Besides that, the results also showed that it is even more effective than Diclofenac. Diclofenac is a group of drugs that is commonly used to treat pain or inflammation caused by arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis by reducing the hormones causing such symptoms.Ã Ã There was also a previous leech therapy for knee osteoarthritis that gave significant pain relief for over a week differences for function, stiffness, and total symptoms remained significant in favour of leech therapy until the end of study and for quality of life until day 28. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Nov 4;139(9):724-30.Ã Effectiveness of leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized,controlled trial.Ã Michalsen A, Klotz S, LÃ ¼dtke R, Moebus S, Spahn G, Dobos GJ. Alternatives Recombinant Hirudin A leechs saliva contains limited amount of natural hirudin, so the idea of mass hirudin extraction for treatments is almost impractical as this will multiply the cost. One possible solution to this is to synthesise a similar substance. Scientists have previously cloned the cDNA for hirudin and it is expressed in yeast. However, the resulting recombinant protein was found to be produced in the unsulfated form, which is known to have an at least 10 times lower affinity for thrombin than the naturally occurring tyrosine-sulfated hirudin. Recombinant hirudin has been approved by United States FDA to be produced and applied commercially. It can be an alternative when living leeches are not available and the patient seems to develop intolerance against heparin. The dosage must be calculated properly in order to reduce the risk of side effects. Hirudin Heparin Recombinant Hirudin Advantages Led to a very consistent anticoagulant effect over time, independently of the use of thrombolytic therapy, a feature that represents a practical advantage Inexpensive, performed well as an antithrombin agent in the current trial and should still be regarded as the standard therapy Demonstrable and consistant effect, especially on the rate of reinfarction, in the group of patients with acute coronary syndromes as a whole Disadvantages Excessive usage will increase bleeding risk Not infrequently engenders an immune thrombocytopenia, which can result in serious thrombotic complications Small clinical effect Table 1: Comparison between hirudin, heparin, and recombinant hirudin by means of advantages and disadvantages Hementin Hementin is a unique secretion in the saliva of Amazon Giant Leech (Haementeria ghilianii). As shown in Figure 2, it inhibits the coagulation of blood differently with hirudin by breaking down the fibrinogen. Because Haementeria ghilianii does not belong to the order of Arhynchobdellida but Rhynchobdellida, therefore it was not recognised as medicinal leech. However, Maurice Moloney, professor of plant biotechnology at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada discovered that while hirudin prevents clot formation, hementin dissolves a particular kind of platelet-rich clot that can cause stroke and heart attack and against which clot busters like streptokinase and urokinase are ineffective.Ã Ã Mechanical Leech A leech-induced skin wound on a congested fasciocutaneous tissue flap will bleed passively for a number of hours with 90 percent of blood emission within 5 hours after leech detachment. However, after 3 hours, passive blood loss averages only 2.9 ml. Furthermore, increases of maximum surface perfusion only extend 8 mm from the leech bite during passive bleeding. As suggested by these prior results, passive blood loss from a single leech bite should not be relied on to sufficiently decongest an impaired tissue flap, even after a relatively large active blood meal. There is the potential, however, of augmenting passive blood loss volumes with the use of a mechanical device that facilitates the antithrombogenic environment of a congested tissue flap. Such a mechanical device may encourage increased tissue viability. Increases in blood loss volumes may translate into improved postoperative blood perfusion in congested tissue flaps, resulting in improved tissue flap viability and survival . Implications Environmental, Economic: disposal, release to the wild, pollution, disrupts food chain, expensive for medical purposes, but lucrative for pharmaceutical industries Ethical, Social: reject the chance giving better treatment for patients, risk of side effects (bleeding), fear, can be overcome by mechanical leeches Evaluation Conclusion It can be seen that leech therapy is somehow more effective than modern drugs. However, it raises a few more questions like why we do not just extract the leech contents to treat the patients directly with it? I think it is because even though numerous studies and researches have been carried out, there are still some uncertain areas need to be recognised and solved. Besides that, the current situation allows us to avoid overdose of leech contentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦etc.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Country of Pointed Firs transcends the boundaries of a traditional story in attempt to grasp the realism of the country landscape in a more generous form. The book contains little to no drama, but instead focuses on description of dialect, landscape, and gesture. The narrator meditates upon the unchanged time of Dunnet Landing to describe the quality of landscape and permanence in scenes of country life. Her trip serves as a revaluation of continuanceÃ¢â¬âa fixed pattern of social order and existence within the village community. Furthermore, the narrator's outsider perspective justifies the practice of defining characters in external conditions. The Country of Pointed Firs is written in local color containing character portraits and genre scenes. Local color, in a sense, is a miniature form of literature in which the writer works with anecdote and caricature. Incidentally humor derives from occurrences of real life. The local color form is appropriate to the nature of the nar rator's experience of country life in Dunnet Landing. Jewett's art of perspective informs her pictorial style with a deeply refined sense of texture. The reader is made to feel the narrator's final judgments in the closing chapter of Ã¢â¬Å"The Backward View,Ã¢â¬ which states an end of the narrator's return to Dunnet Landing. The concluding scene is a moment of farewell between the narrator and Dunnet Landing as she stands at the crossing of two pathsÃ¢â¬âthe village life and the city to which she must return. The narrator sits upon a hill and oversees her surroundings, closely observing Mrs. Todd whose distant figure Ã¢â¬Å"looked mateless and appealingÃ¢â¬ (129). Mrs. Todd's attitude of sorrow and isolation reveals deeper insights into her character. Though Mrs. Todd earlier Ã¢â¬Å"... ...n Mrs. Todd came back and found her lodger gone. So we die before our own eyes; so we see some chapters of our lives come to their natural endÃ¢â¬ (129). The closed and quiet summer of village life has come to a swift end. The narrator departs as the tide sets in, leaving Dunnet Landing in its air of isolated stillness. The narrator's precise observations allow the reader to find insight in small moments of village life. Jewett presents a world seemingly unchanged with a mixture of remoteness and a Ã¢â¬Å"childish certainty of being the center of civilizationÃ¢â¬ (1). The narrator's nostalgic recount of village life has about it the mood of a dream, a life remembered and not put down until long afterwards. Jewett's pictorial conventions create a feeling of impermanence akin to nostalgia assembled into long, gracefully rambled sentences authenticating her own regional style.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Prostitution is one of th oldest trades known to man and even at the present time, while it is illegal in most areas of the United States, it is still employing many women and is solicited by even more men. Prostitution should be decriminalized because we are paying too high a financial and social cost for the ineffective enforcement of laws against it. The money and the law enforcement personnel freed by legalizing prostitution could be better spent if used to protect citizens against violent crimes. Prostitution has not always been a crime and there are still a few communities in the West, particularly in Nevada, where houses of prostitution operate as legal businesses. First, let me give you a brief history lesson on prostitution. Ã¢â¬Å"Before the 17th century, fornication may not have been socially accepted, but neither English nor American common law recognized it as a crime. After the Civil War, a series of laws were proposed to segregate and license prostitutes to operate in Ã¢â¬Å"red lightÃ¢â¬ districts, and in 1910, the Mann act, a federal statute prohibiting the transportation of females across a state border for the purpose of prostitution, debauchery, or any immoral purpose was passed. By 1917, the organized and highly profitable prostitution of New Orleans and other cities was doomed by federal edict, and in 1925, every state had enacted an anti-prostitution law. Still, the effectiveness and the social and economic cost of making prostitution a crime has been continually questionedÃ¢â¬ (J. Pearl, 256). There are generally two types of prostitutes, those who either employ themselves or have a pimp, and then there are escorts. Escorts are supposed to be just that, an escort. According to Kentucky law, an escort is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Any person who is held out to the public to be available for hire for monetary consideration in the form of a fee, commission, tip or salary, to consort with, or who accompanies, another or others to or about social affairs, entertainments or places of amusement, or within any private quarters, or who pose for the purpose of being observed or viewed by any personÃ¢â¬ (J. Sharkey). However, most escorts are prostitutes that are hidingÃ behind and being protected by the facade of a legal business. If, and usually when an escort does engage in any sexual activity, her services have then become criminal and she is prostituting herself. But, other more violent crimes are being committed daily. The perpetrators of these crimes often get away with it because our police forces are spread too thinly, even without adding prostitution arrests into the equation. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1985, residents and visitors of Dallas, Texas reported over 15,000 violent crimes, only 2,665 of which resulted in arrest. That same year, Dallas police officers arrested 7,280 prostitutes, which cost local taxpayers over ten million dollars. More importantly, it cost the community over 300 hours daily, of police man-hours (J. Pearl, 258). For an officer to make an arrest of a prostitute, he must do five things. First, the officer must be solicited by , and make an arrest of a suspected prostitute or Ã¢â¬Å"johnÃ¢â¬ , then he would have to transport the arrest to the police station. Once the arrest has been detained, they must be booked, this would include fingerprinting and the identification process. The next thing the officer does is write and file his report, the fifth and final step of a prostitution arrest is to testify in court. The officer interviewed says that testifying is by far the most time-consuming aspect of the entire process (Mora, interview). Beyond the obvious costs associated with police earnings are less apparent ancillary expenses. These are the props and things used to make an arrest. Most officers change their physical appearances frequently and lease a new car every three months, these expenses, of course, are paid by our tax dollars. There are two more aspects of financial cost involved with prostitution arrests. The judicial expenses and correction costs. Ã¢â¬Å"The costs of prosecuting persons arrested as suspected a prostitute reflect the fact that most cases involve more than one court appearance. The prosecution of an average prostitution case usually requires nearly four hours of a courtÃ¢â¬â¢s full attention over a period of weeks or months (J. Pearl). When a person isÃ convicted of prostitution, she may be sentenced to jail time. Ã¢â¬Å"In California, convicted prostitutes are estimated to account for at least 30 percent of the population in most womenÃ¢â¬â¢s correctional facilities, the annual cost of incarcerating only four convicted prostitutes in Boston was almost fifty thousand dollarsÃ¢â¬ (J. Pearl, 262). Correctional costs impose a substantial burden on the public. Since it takes an average of 22 hours to complete the process of arresting a prostitute, you can imagine the amount of time that is being wasted on it. The time used enforcing present prostitution laws could be better used on finding and prosecuting the perpetrators of violent crimes. Ã¢â¬Å"Well over two million violent crimes were reported in 1985 to police departments. Eighty three percent, or 1.9 million, of these reported offenses failed to result in arrest. For each of these non-arrest cases, police in the same cities last year spent nearly one hour enforcing prostitution lawsÃ¢â¬â¢ (J. Pearl). There is no assurance that while arresting prostitution offenders, that police officers will also be patrolling for other crimes being committed in the same area. All factors considered, prostitution laws clearly represent lost opportunities for the protection of society against other crimes. Charles Winick says that Ã¢â¬Å"It would be extremely foolhardy to base public policy on the temporary or neurotic needs of a very small element of the population, there has never been any society where regulated prostitution has workedÃ¢â¬ (pg. 267). He also believes that prostitution is unfair to the prostitute, and that prostitution paves the way for other crimes in a community that allows it. I am not denying these facts, however, Winick does not provide any refutation to my arguments invoving the costs of prostitution law enforcement. Maybe because there are very few arguments against my views. Many Americans may never wish to condone prostitution, but the time has come to ask whether or not we can afford to keep it illegal. In the face of rising complaints of violent crime in virtually all major cities, the hundreds of highly skilled vice officer man-hours devoted weekly to prostitution costs. It is clear that many of the costs incurred in theÃ enforcement of prostitution laws are inescapable, but most unfortunately, police on prostitution duty are seldom available to deter more assaultive crimes. Works Cited Mora, James. Personal Interview. 28 Apr. 1999 Pearl, Julie. Ã¢â¬Å"The Highest Paying Customers: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Cities Against the Costs of Prostitution Control.Ã¢â¬ Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality. ED. Robert T Francoeur. Guilford [C.T]: Dushkin Publishing Group, INC., 1989. Sharkey, Joe. Ã¢â¬Å"Come Listen to a Story Ã¢â¬ËBout a Town Against Hookers.Ã¢â¬ New York Times. 19 Apr. 1998: P. 7, Sec. 4. Winick, Charles. Ã¢â¬Å"Debate on the Legalization of Prostitution.Ã¢â¬ Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality: Ed. Robert T. Francoeur. Guilford [C.T.]: Dushkin Publishing Group, INC., 1989.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Silence, exile, and cunning.Ã¢â¬ - these are weapons Stephen Dedalus chooses in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. And these, too, were weapons that its author, James Joyce, used against a hostile world.Like his fictional hero, Stephen, the young Joyce felt stifled by the narrow interests, religious pressures, and political squabbles of turn-of-the-century Ireland. In 1904, when he was twenty-two, he left his family, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Ã¢â¬Å"dull torporÃ¢â¬ of Dublin for the European continent to become a writer. With brief exceptions, he was to remain away from Ireland for the rest of his life.It was a bold move for several reasons. In spite of his need to break away from constrictions on his development as a writer, Joyce had always been close to his family. He still admired the intellectual and artistic aspects of the Roman Catholic tradition that had nurtured him. And the city of Dublin was in his soul.(Asked later how long he had been away from Dublin, he answered: Ã¢â¬Å"Have I ever left it?Ã¢â¬ ) But Joyce did achieve his literary goal in exile. The artistic climate of continental Europe encouraged experiment. With cunning (skillfulness) and hard work, Joyce developed his own literary voice. He labored for ten years on Portrait of the Artist, the fictionalized account of his youth. When it appeared in book form in 1916, twelve years after JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s flight from Ireland, it created a sensation.Joyce was hailed as an important new force in literature.Portrait of the Artist is usually read as an autobiography, and many of the incidents in it come from JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that he was exactly like his sober hero, Stephen Dedalus. JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother Stanislaus, with whom he was very close, called Portrait of the Artist Ã¢â¬Å"a lying autobiography and a raking satire.Ã¢â¬ The book should be read as a work of art, not a documentary record. Joyce transformed autobiography into fict ion by selecting, sifting, ... Free Essays on Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man Free Essays on Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is an autobiographical novel of James Joyce. The novel Stephen Hero was originally written as JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s autobiography, which was reworked from the autobiographical piece entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Portrait of the Artist.Ã¢â¬ This piece was written for a journal, but was rejected due to sexual content. In each of these works it was JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal to create a story, in which the protagonist was a Catholic hero as well as a martyr, according to Richard Ellman, JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s biographer. Stephen Dedalus is the main character of the novel, as well as the protagonist. The work starts out when Stephen is about three years of age, and Joyce does an excellent job of describing the experience of growing up to the reader by taking us into the mind of Stephen Dedalus through a literary technique called Ã¢â¬Å"stream of consciousness.Ã¢â¬ Stephen constantly detaches himself from others throughout his childhood. Sexual urges are a large problem for Stephen because he assumes he is the only boy feeling them. This only causes him to feel more distanced and outcast. Because Stephen is so shy and isolated, people believe that he is egotistical and arrogant, a mistake made all too frequently in our society. This makes it even harder for Stephen to fit in and get along with others. Stephen has persistent feelings for a girl named Eileen, but the idea of them being together is frowned upon by his family, which upsets Stephen. This obstacle is similar to a situation in another work, DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno, by Dante Alighieri. In DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s real life, his love is also out of reach. He is in love with a girl named Beatrice but cannot realize this love due to his betrothal to another woman. Beatrice dies prematurely at the young age of twenty-five, and this inspires Alighieri to write Inferno. Inferno is a story about DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s a brief period in his life when he lost sight of his moral principles, and turns to his faith in order to g... Free Essays on Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man Ã¢â¬Å"Silence, exile, and cunning.Ã¢â¬ - these are weapons Stephen Dedalus chooses in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. And these, too, were weapons that its author, James Joyce, used against a hostile world.Like his fictional hero, Stephen, the young Joyce felt stifled by the narrow interests, religious pressures, and political squabbles of turn-of-the-century Ireland. In 1904, when he was twenty-two, he left his family, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Ã¢â¬Å"dull torporÃ¢â¬ of Dublin for the European continent to become a writer. With brief exceptions, he was to remain away from Ireland for the rest of his life.It was a bold move for several reasons. In spite of his need to break away from constrictions on his development as a writer, Joyce had always been close to his family. He still admired the intellectual and artistic aspects of the Roman Catholic tradition that had nurtured him. And the city of Dublin was in his soul.(Asked later how long he had been away from Dublin, he answered: Ã¢â¬Å"Have I ever left it?Ã¢â¬ ) But Joyce did achieve his literary goal in exile. The artistic climate of continental Europe encouraged experiment. With cunning (skillfulness) and hard work, Joyce developed his own literary voice. He labored for ten years on Portrait of the Artist, the fictionalized account of his youth. When it appeared in book form in 1916, twelve years after JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s flight from Ireland, it created a sensation.Joyce was hailed as an important new force in literature.Portrait of the Artist is usually read as an autobiography, and many of the incidents in it come from JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that he was exactly like his sober hero, Stephen Dedalus. JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother Stanislaus, with whom he was very close, called Portrait of the Artist Ã¢â¬Å"a lying autobiography and a raking satire.Ã¢â¬ The book should be read as a work of art, not a documentary record. Joyce transformed autobiography into fict ion by selecting, sifting, ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Short Stories by Selected Women Writers Essay Essays Short Stories by Selected Women Writers Essay Paper Short Stories by Selected Women Writers Essay Paper Essay Topic: Poes Short Stories An Undergraduate ThesisPresented to the Faculty of theCollege of Humanistic disciplines and SciencesUniversity of Southeastern PhilippinesBo. Obrero. Davao City In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirments for the DegreeOf Bachelor of Arts in Literature Cheah Kaye RosalesCharisma J. Tabingo October 2013 AbstractionROSALES. CHEAH KAYE and TABINGO. CHARISMA J. . University of Southeastern Philippines. Davao City. Ã¢â¬Å"Short Narratives by Selected Women WritersÃ¢â¬ Adviser: Prof. Dayenne SipacoThis survey was conducted to find the usual Form of the five short narratives. It is besides analyzed the events and characterÃ¢â¬â¢s state of affairs in the narrative. The Formalistic Approach was used in the survey. The survey found that the Hagiographas of the five writers Kerima Polotan Tuvera. Aida Rivera Ford and Irish Shiela Crisostomo show their great cognition of the Philippine history. This survey was conducted through the usage of Formalistic Approach. The research workers gathered all five short narratives by selected adult females authors and read the narrative. analyzed and studied. The research workers use the formalized attack to analyse the signifier of the survey. We choose form for easy to do the construction of this survey. Furtheremore. this survey analyze the elements used in Kerima Polotan-TuveraÃ¢â¬â¢s The Virgin and A House Full of Daughters. Aida Rivera-FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Love in the Cornhusk and The chieftest Mourner and Iris Shi ela G. CrosostomoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Steel Brassiere. The chapter 1 included the job and its scene. It is besides include the statement of the job. the significance of the survey. range and restriction of the survey and definition of thr elements used. The chapter 2 discusses the reappraisal of related literature and surveies. the secret plan sum-up and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s lifes and the attack used in the survey. Theoretical and conceptual model was besides included. In the chapter 3. the research design. research instrument. research procedure and research venue are besides included in this chapter. Presentation. analysis and reading which employed formalized attack were in chapter 4. The drumhead. decision and recommendation were besides shown in chapter 5. The tabular arraies of the five short narratives are in the appendices including the elements used in this survey. APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfilment of the demands for the grade. Bachelor of Humanistic disciplines in literature. thesis entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Short Narratives by Selected Women WritersÃ¢â¬ prepared and submitted by Cheah Kaye Rosales and Charisma J. Tabingo. is herewith recommended for blessing and credence. Prof. Dayenne Sipaco Adviser Approved by the Committee on Oral Defense with a class of _______ . DR. MA. RITA C. TUBAN DR. PATRICIA O. ELBANBUENA Panelist Panelist Accepted as partial fulfilment of the demands for the grade. Bachelor of Humanistic disciplines in Literature. DR. MILAGROS D. ARQUILLANO DR. EVEYTH P. DELIGERO Director. Evening Program Dean. College of Arts and Sciences Recognition The research workers would wish to thank the undermentioned persons who helped a batch in doing this research and survey: Prof. Dayenne Sipaco. ourv advisor. thank you for assisting us to do and complete this survey. thank you for your apprehension. forbearance and unfavorable judgment. To our panel members. Dr. Ma. Rita C. Tuban and Dr. Patricia O. Elbanbuena. thank you for your forbearance. understanding and giving us a good thought in this survey. To our parents. thank you for the support in fiscal and moral support. Thank you for the encouragement and supplications. And most particularly to our all-powerful God. thank you for giving us a strenght. counsel. cognition and good wellness to complete this survey. C. K. R and C. J. T Table OF CONTENTS PageDeclaration of Originality Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . one Title Page Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ two AbstractÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ three Approval SheetÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . V Acknowledgement Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . six Table of Contents Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . seven List of Tables Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . ten List of Figures Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . eleven Chapter1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1 Statement of the Problem Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . Significance of the Study Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . Scope and Limitation Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . Definition of Footings Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Plot Summary Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Related Studies Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Testimonies on The Virgin Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Testimonies on A House Full of Daughters Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Testimonies on Love in the Cornhusk Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Testimonies on The Chieftest Mourner Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Testimonies on The Steel Brassiere Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Formalistic Approach Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Conceptual Framework Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 3. Method Research Design Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Research Instrument Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Research Locale Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Research Procedure Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4. PRESENTATION. ANALYSIS AND Interpretation OF DATA Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Form and Content Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Elementss Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Similarities and Differences of the Short Stories Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . Analysis Data Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . 5. SUMMARY. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Summary Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Recommendation Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . APPENDICES Appendix A TableThe Virgin Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . A House Full of Daughters Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . Love in the Cornhusk Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . The Chieftest Mourner Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . The Steel Brassiere Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . The Five Short Narratives The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-TuveraÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . A House Full of Daughters by Kerime Polotan-TuveraÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Love in the Cornhusk by Aida Rivera-FordÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . . The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera FordÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ The Steel Brassiere by Iris Shiela G. CrisostomoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ BIBLIOGRAPHY CURRICULUM VITAE List OF FIGURESFigure1. 1 Conceptual Framework Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1. 2 Plot Structure Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Chapter 1THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGLiterature is the art of written work and can. in some fortunes. refer entirely to print beginnings. The word literature literally means Ã¢â¬Å"things made from lettersÃ¢â¬ and the pars pro toto term Ã¢â¬Å"lettersÃ¢â¬ is sometimes used to mean Ã¢â¬Å"literature. Ã¢â¬ as in the figures of address Ã¢â¬Å"arts and lettersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"man of lettersÃ¢â¬ . A short narrative is a brief work literature. normally written in narrative prose. In so making. short narratives make usage of secret plan. resonance and other dynamic constituents to a far greater grade than is typical of an anecdote. yet to a far lesser grade than a novel. While the short narrative is mostly distinguishable from the novel. writers of both by and large draw from a common pool of literary techniques. In Philippines. the most noteworthy literature was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the twentieth century in Spanish linguistic communication. I t includes the fables of prehistoric culture. and the colonial bequest of the Philippines. The history of Filipino adult females authors is an history of how they became literary Ã¢â¬Å"mistresses of the inkÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lady pen-pushersÃ¢â¬ who created plants of fiction or factual and historical storybooks. poesy. novels. short narratives. essays. lifes. autobiographies and other known composing genres. Writing in English. Spanish. Filipino and other linguistic communications. female authors from the archipelago utilised literature. in contrast with the unwritten tradition of the past. as the life voices of their personal experiences. ideas. consciousness. constructs of themselves. society. political relations. Philippines and universe history. The job that the research workers have noticed that some of us have hapless in composing accomplishments particularly the college pupils presents. The advocates believe that proper usage of elements. which are the chief ingredients in composing art of the pupils. There are many topics that focus on the proper manner of authorship. Some pupils do non develop their authorship accomplishments. These job consequence to a bigger issue which is the lesser Filipino authored books being published and read in the state today. The demand to turn to the issue is the ground for carry oning this research which aims to assist future Filipino authors how to utilize decently the elements in composing. With the usage of Formalistic Approach the research workers study the novels and how the writers used the elements in accomplishing the signifier of their narratives to leave these to the hereafter Filipino authors. The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera is a narrative about Miss Mijares. the stereotyped uptight. conventional. old fashioned and rigorous old maid. For a long clip. sheÃ¢â¬â¢s been populating in a everyday life. When she met the cat. sheÃ¢â¬â¢s attracted to him because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"fearÃ¢â¬ her. She loses herself when sheÃ¢â¬â¢s with him. but non wholly. The symbolism of her acquiring lost literally is the manner she feels with the cat. She is sloging on to a entirely different and new experience. She finds herself caring for the adult male Ã¢â¬â a low-level Ã¢â¬â but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t attention. When she found out that he has a boy. she felt betrayed Ã¢â¬â her feelings betrayed. This is what she is acquiring into Ã¢â¬â non all of the things are in her control. In the terminal. she letÃ¢â¬â¢s travel of all her suppressions. A House Full of Daughters besides by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera is a narrative about a female parent who has seven girls. and realize s that itÃ¢â¬â¢s non about something to give wealthiest to her kids. but what matters most how good maternity she gives in order to do them good girls. Love in the Cornhusk by Aida Rivera-Ford is another sort of love narrative. But the stoping is non like the other love narrative that they live merrily of all time after in the terminal. In this narrative. theyÃ¢â¬â¢re love did non last till the terminal. The miss marries person alternatively of the cat that she loves. The narrative shows that Ã¢â¬Å"true love waitsÃ¢â¬ . The Chieftest Mourner besides by Aida Rivera-Ford is a narrative of Ã¢â¬Å"another womanÃ¢â¬ . Even if the Legal married woman did suffer with her hubby while they are together. itÃ¢â¬â¢s non her. who helped the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s Uncle when he was in his lowest minute of his life. And it was the other adult female who did a great forfeit for the uncle and she mourned greatly upon his decease. But it is non advisable that immature adult females or adult female should be Ã¢â¬Å"The other womanÃ¢â¬ because every bit far as society is concerned. it is a wickedness. The research workers decided to carry on this survey because The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera. Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo are all written by Philippine adult females authors. Since formalized attack. frequently referred to as the New Criticism. it assumes that a work of literary art is an organic integrity in which every component contributes to the entire significance of a work. The advocates of this survey chose five short narratives that would stand for the attending of the readers to look for different structural relationships and patterns non merely in words and their relationships but besides in larger units such as the short narratives of the different adult females authors in structuring the secret plan. the puting including its existent topographic point and clip and its atmosphere. point of position. subject and linguistic communication that may lend t o the singularity of each work. Statement of the ProblemThis survey was intended at look intoing. understanding and measuring the similarities and differences in the relationship of assorted formal elements of a text to do up a whole in the short narratives by the adult females authors through formalized attack. Furthermore. the survey seeks to reply the undermentioned inquiries: 1. What is the signifier of the selected short narratives? a. PutingB. Word picturec. Plot Structured. Point of positione. Theme2. What are the short narratives similarities and differences in footings of signifier? Significance of the StudyThe survey is intended to profit the followers: Students. The survey may help chiefly the literature big leagues as they expand their consciousness of the application of formalized attack that will farther heighten their positive response to the universe of literature. College of Arts and Sciences. This survey may heighten the instruction attack in literature. The survey may continue auxiliary acquisition in reading short narratives. This survey undergoes legion procedures to come up with a factual and dependable consequence. Therefore. acquisition in this instance can be more interesting and it will assist them to delve deeper their apprehension of the work. Literature Curriculum. The survey may assist to understand to the full how a work of an art is analyzed utilizing a specific attack. peculiarly formalism. These may assist better the current stragedy used in literary unfavorable judgment. Through this. there will be betterment in critical analysis and doing a short narrative. Bing good in literary unfavorable judgment will assist to hold better analysis in analyzing literary plants. Scope and Limitation of the Study The survey explored the different structural forms. every bit good as understanding the signifiers which the five short narratives are portrayed through an analysis of characters. secret plan. scene. point of position. manner and tone. This survey was limited to the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera. Love in the Cornhusk and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo. Definition of Footings The followers are operationally defined harmonizing to how they are used in this survey. Short Story. A short narrative is a brief work of literature. normally written in narrative prose. Chieftest Mourner. Who suffered most. the kept woman or 2nd married woman ; because the 2nd married woman wants to turn out to the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s household that she has a great right to the dead organic structure of the poet instead than the legal married woman. Point of View. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s determination about who is to state the narrative and how it is to be told. Plot. The agreement of events that make up a narrative. For a secret plan to be effectual. it must include a sequence of incidents that bear a important causal relationship to each other. Puting. The clip and topographic point of the action in a narrative. verse form. or drama. Theme. A storyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject is its thought or point. Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESThis chapter contains related literature and surveies. secret plan sum-up of the five short narratives. reappraisal of related surveies. formalized attack and the lifes of the three Filipino adult females authors. The reappraisal of related literature contains the information about the narrative. the individual behind their state of affairs and the reappraisals about them. These surveies discuss about the characters and their personalities. Formalistic Approach The 20th century formalized attack. frequently referred to as the new unfavorable judgment assumes that a work of literary art is an organic integrity in which every component contributes to the entire significance of the work. This attack is every bit old as literary unfavorable judgment itself. but it was developed in the 20th century by John Crowe Ransom ( 1884-1974 ) . Allen Tate ( 1899-1979 ) . T. S Elliot ( 1888-1965 ) and others. The formalist critic embraces an nonsubjective theory of art and examines secret plan. word picture. duologue and manner to demo how elements contribute to the subject or integrity of the literary work. Moral. historical. psychological and sociological concerns are considered extrinsic to unfavorable judgment and of secondary importance to the scrutiny of workmanship and signifier. Content and signifier in a work constitute a integrity. and it is the undertaking of the critic to analyze and measure the unity of the work. Paradox. sarcasm. dynamic tens eness and integrity are the primary values of formalist unfavorable judgment. The term formalism describes an accent on signifier over content or significance in the humanistic disciplines. literature. or doctrine. Formalism has the advantage of coercing authors to measure a work on its ain footings instead than to trust Ã¢â¬Å"acceptedÃ¢â¬ impressions of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Formalism is intrinsic literary unfavorable judgment because it does non necessitate of any organic structure of cognition besides literature. Formalistic Approach first measure in explicating the literary work is to detect what the words really mean in their full denotative and connotative value. The object of formalized unfavorable judgment is to happen the key to the construction and significance of the literary work. Related Literature This portion includes the sum-up of the five short narratives to give the readers a brief image of the narrative. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s lifes of The Virgin. A House Full of Daughters. Love in the Cornhusk. The Chieftest Mourner and The Steel Brassiere are besides included so as to give the readers an information about their lives and inspirations. The Formalist Approach which is used by the advocates is besides discussed to allow the readers understand how the research is being conducted. Finally the reappraisals about the narratives are besides found in this chapter to give the readers a glance and thought on the feedbacks of the people who have read it. Plot Summary The Virgin is a narrative is about a adult female named Miss Mijares. she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t expression like 34. She was little. about bony but she had learned how to dress herself to accomplish those forms of her hips and bosom. She had pushed against the bed in heartache and besides in gratitude and thought that neither love nor glorification stood behind her. merely the empty shadows. Alone the room with her unburied dead. she had held up her custodies to the visible radiation. observing the midst lasting fingers. believing in a mixture of shame and resentment and guilt that she had neer touched a adult male. She met a jobseeker adult male. using to her in their woodcraft subdivision. They had talked along with the interview. and the adult male told her that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t married. She was frequently down at the hovel that housed their bureauÃ¢â¬â¢s woodcraft. speaking with Ato. his chief. traveling over to him with the list of old custodies due to let go of. They hired their work forces on a rotary motion footing and three months was the longest 1 could remain. The new manus was absent for a hebdomad. Miss Mijares waited on that Tuesday he foremost failed to describe for some grounds. Until. Miss Mijares got angry when she knew that the adult male lied to him that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t married. It rained that afternoon in one of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s fierce. unexpected boom storms. Without warning. it seemed to reflect outside Miss MijaresÃ¢â¬â¢ window a grey. unhappy expression. And the adult male calls her and apologized to her approximately why he lied. Up and down the empty. rain Ã¢â¬âbeaten street she looked. It was as though that all at one time everyone else had died and they were in the universe. entirely. In her secret bosom. Miss MijaresÃ¢â¬â¢ immature dreams fluttered faintly to life. looking monstrous in the rain. near this adult male. looking monstrous but sweet overwhelming. She wanted to travel off from him but he had moved and brushed against her and where his touch had fallen. her flesh leaped. and she recalled how his custodies had looked that first twenty-four hours. lain tenderly on the border of her desk and about the wooden bird. in the dark she turned to him. A House Full of Daughters is a narrative about a female parent who has seven girls. She thought. Oklahoman possibly she could hold seven doweries or seven beauty parlours. She has a house full of seven immature adult females. a regular avalanche of feminineness. For her. there is some guilt in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s maternity. retrieving with what heartbreak each girl had come because one had wanted boies alternatively. Her friends told her how lucky and blessed she was. She frequently burst into cryings and they thought she cried from joy. But sheÃ¢â¬â¢s non one of those female parents maintaining a mark of what precisely the babe has to give. like nice apparels. jewellery. merriment and good time s. She has a friend. that she can state a complete female parent. beautiful in her gestation. beautiful in her maternity. Her friend has a manner of have oning pregnancy dresses that looks her elegant. She neer ate Sweets. maintaining purely to juices and vegetables. in short. she is a right female parent. But all of a sudden. her friend ran out of nowhere with another adult male and left those beautifully-tended babes. There is no moral here. but she suspected she would hold stayed if she did allowed her herself. with salvaging wit. the luxury of some errors. Her girls are reassigning their devotion from film actresses and dad vocalists to their school teachers and real-life friends. but they are mildy hostile to those who strain their speech patterns. She has caught one girl. 15. stock-still on the cemented walk. arrested on her manner place late afternoon by sounds she no longer hear. When they met for supper that dark. she seemed different. she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say a thing. so close and sad and her bosom constricted because she knew that her girl had a long manner to travel. If all that she has given a girl is a mere rightness. non rightness. mere signifier. non substance. If she distill maternity of about 20 old ages. that merely about amounts up all she taught them. Merely because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want them accomplished such a thing but desiring it to be an experience for them. It is a miracl e to her life that her girls learned love from her. who wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ever able to give it. she who wanted merely the beginning to last their figure. They lived in a big musty house canopied by antediluvian trees and they fight daily over the bathroom. seven immature adult females and this she sow. but in cheery confusion. they keep their good relationship. Love in the Cornhusk. Is a narrative about Tinang. she visits her former maestro. Senora. whom she was working for before she got married. While transporting her babe male child. she walks through the entryway of the house of her former Senora and run into his former immature maestro. Tito. and the Senora. Upon acquiring inside the house. Senora asks her some inquiries how her married life is together with his Bagobo hubby and besides how is it to be a female parent of a babe male child. Their conversation continues and they reach to the point of speaking about the tractor drivers of Senora. particularly the 1 who was good. Amado. After that. Tinang eventually tells her former Senora about her purpose of being at that place. The baptism of her babe is about to come and she wants Senora to be a Madrina or a Ninang to her kid. The relationship between Tinang and her former Senora with her household remains good. And so. Senora hurriedly agreed to be so and yet wants to supply baptismal apparels for the babe and the fee for the Priest. Before she left from SenoraÃ¢â¬â¢s house. she was told by her that there is a missive for her in the apothecarys shop. which besides serves as the station office of the barrio. By that minute. she thought that person might be dead or possibly that missive comes from her sister. So she hastily takes her manner place and base on ballss by that apothecarys shop to acquire the missive. As she continues walking in a boggy route to her manner place. she tries to look for a topographic point where she could put down her babe. trusting that she could read the missive before she arrives place. Finally. she finds a good topographic point where she can halt for a piece. There is a Kamansi tree and under of it are scattered cornhusks. So. she prepares a pile of it utilizing her pes and laid her babe upon it. Then. she starts reading the missive. After making so. she finds out that the missive is a love missive. her first love missive. which comes from Amado. her fellow. stating that he does non desire to interrupt up with her when he left from the field of Senora without stating the ground why he did so. Time can non be back any longer. It is already excessively late that she discovers that Amado still loves her. However. she was non informed that his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s worst unwellness made him gone for some clip. Alternatively. Tinang marry a Bagobo adult male. whom owns 2 hectares of land. After all. what she does is merely to retrieve her yesteryear with Amado until the clip comes when she has to go forth upon detecting that a serpent is mousing towards her babe male child. In the terminal. she leaves the topographic point without detecting that her first love missive fell down among the cornhusks. The Chieftest Mourner. Is a narrative about narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle. hubby of her Aunt Sophia is said to be dead. He was the last of a distinguishable school of Philippine poets and a fine-looking adult male. But. he was populating with another adult female. she brazenly followed his Uncle everyplace naming herself his married woman. a confusing state of affairs ensued. When people mentioned UncleÃ¢â¬â¢s married woman. there was no manner of cognizing whether her Aunt Sophia or to the adult fema le. The storyteller was perplexing over who was to be the official widow at his funeral when word came that it was her. the storyteller to maintain Aunt SophiaÃ¢â¬â¢s company at the small chapel and there were merely a few people present. There were two adult females. each taking ownership of her part of the chapel merely as though bets had been laid. apparently forgetful of each other. yet uncovering by this studied neglect that each was really much aware of the other. Her UncleÃ¢â¬â¢s kin surely made a short work of her Aunt and when she returned. her Aunt is sobbing. Equally though as to soothe her. one of the adult females said. in a susurration from the door. that the president himself was expected to come in the afternoon. Meanwhile. the adult female spoke in susurrations. and so the voices raised a trifle. Still. everybody is polite. There was no more speaking back and Forth and the all of a sudden the conversation wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t polite any longer. The adult female strikes. and angry talked to the kin. After her work stoppage to the kin. Aunt Sophia wants to halt her by delighting her kin. After all. the full womanÃ¢â¬â¢s face became ashen with daze and fury. She stood wordless. her face began to jerk and so the shortness of breath came and she tell them they can hold the dead organic structure and she left the entombment after. The Steel Brassiere is a about a married woman and her Tiya AndingÃ¢â¬â¢s steel bandeau. Her Tiya Anding was a friend who had no life relations. When she died. her house and the 300-square-meter batch reverted to the authorities. With the at hand destruction. she had hurriedly driven to that low residence trusting to salvage a few memories of a past life. One of the queerest things she recovered from the heap of old apparels was an old bandeau. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t tantrum for any immature ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s chests because it was made non of soft cotton or lacing but of cold and difficult metal. The bandeau looked like pointed armour ready to debar an ax or a spear from the enemyÃ¢â¬âa certain protection for the delicate female flesh underneath. She remembered Madonna in her lean get-ups. net stockings and all. her breasts in similar. pointed cones. After while. the cold of the metal against her tegument produced a unusual feeling. The bandeau decently belonged to an ancient warrior princess yet she felt she was excessively weak to contend her ain bottles. She had married to L indoln for eight old ages but it felt like she had been populating with a alien. Lindoln was a good supplier. the gross revenues director of a pharmaceutical company that paid good. He gave her married woman a large house with a exuberant garden. a duteous amah and an first-class cook. There was nil more to inquire but she felt she truly had nil. She took her kids to the park. Later in the afternoon. they wandered through the resort area and exhausted clip forcing one another in a swing. Twin metal ironss fastened the swing to a horizontal steel saloon and one time once more the fell of the cold steel between her fingers made her think of her Tiya AndingÃ¢â¬â¢s chest armour. The rain was now falling harder and she was dripping moisture. Troting to the auto with the kids and they run to the parking batch. As expected. the kids came down with a cold and Lindoln kept her married woman up all dark with his how to be a good female parent talks. He barked so crawl into bed with his dorsum turned to her. She lay awake for what seemed like an hr before she heard a swoon snored. Then she went to the balcony for some air. She wanted to shout. She wanted to shout. She wanted to laugh if it would assist. She remembered her Tiya Anding. After tiffin. she helped the amah get the wash from the clothesline. After a few proceedingss under the hot noon Sun. she went back indoors to the kitchen for a cold glass of H2O. The feel of the cold hurler in her manus made her think of the cold metal she one time wore against her chest. The feel of the steel brassiere was as comforting and reassuring as the ice H2O running down to her pharynx. The phone was pealing and it was Lindoln. Her hubby told her that heÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Jimmy will be coming for dinner but the line was bad and she told her hubby to name her once more. But all of a sudden. when the phone rang once more and once more. she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t put the phone up any longer. For her. the steel bandeau reminds her as her Tiya AndingÃ¢â¬â¢s words of soothing and reassuring. Review of Related Studies In this portion. the advocates include the critical analysis made on the five short narratives. This is to do the readers understand the narrative deeply. In add-on. the research workers aim to explicate to the audience how and in what manner the narratives are being presented by its several writers. This includes the surveies related to the characters and events in the narratives. Testimonies on The Virgin. In the book of The Virgin. Kerima Polotan-Tuvera showed her composing accomplishments to the readers about adult females personalities and state of affairs. The narrative was created passionately and beautiful for adult females who have battles about love. Based on the short narrative. the assorted personalities that the chief character named Miss Mijares showcased were her stiff and distant behaviour wherein her high quality to herself makes her unfriendly and detached to other people. Besides her attitude when it comes to covering with people wherein she frequently humiliates t hem by inquiring them inquiries with respects to their standing in the society. Furthermore. her life was effusively based on caring for her ailing female parent and seting to school her niece therefore. her realisation to herself when it comes to her ain personal life such as love and matrimony was eluded. Miss Mijares is a thirty-four-year-old adult female who works at a occupation arrangement bureau wherein her position in life has put her into a state of affairs of assisting first her household before herself. The major jobs that Miss Mijares encountered in the narrative was the decease of her female parent wherein she mourned on that really twenty-four hours necessitating her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh and fighting to maintain herself strong which besides changed her ideals in life which made her high quality as a adult females more resilient. Another job that she encountered was facing her emotions particularly with her feelings to the new adult male at the woodworking store wherein during the interview and application for the occupation. Miss Mijares shows a b ossy or chesty sort of personality towards the cat. furthermore she was inadvertently drawn to the adult male particularly during the clip that both of them were stranded on an unknown street because of heavy rain and Miss Mijares driven by her feeling and emotions to the cat allowed herself to the invitation of the adult male. Testimonies on A House Full of Daughters. Another short narrative of Kerima Polotan-Tuvera that she created the narrative as inspiration for the adult females and particularly to those who work so hard to raise their kids. The narrative was originative and beautiful that Kerima was utilizing a female character or the storyteller of the narrative to demo how maternity is of import. Harmonizing to the narrative. Ã¢â¬Å"the fatal mistake of most adult females is to allow maternity surround them to be so sold on its high mission and incalculable intent. as to believe that there is nil more subsequently. Daughters outgrow their daughterhood and when that happens. what have you got but old dentition rings and some obscure memories? Ã¢â¬ Surely. the storyteller of the narrative showed her side to the readers that a maternity means new dimensions. a new degree of hurting. another deepness of grief. a truer tallness of joy. but justly or wrongly. she fight against holding her girls loom so big in her life that the other people drown her. She struggled for air and as a effect broke many of the regulations. We can state that the storyteller of the narrative is Kerima Tuvera. as she portrays the narrative. there might be connected to her or possibly she encountered other adult female like the storyteller or possibly she have experience with it. Kerima was utilizing her originative accomplishments that she compose this narrative to show her side to the readers that being wish her as a female parent has a large intent and of import. Aside in the narrative. the storyteller has a friend. a complete female parent. a beautiful maternity. which ran off with her adult male and leaves her good hubby and her beautiful babes. Kerima wants to cognize the readers that why this complete female parent runs off with her adult male? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because sheÃ¢â¬â¢s afraid of her duties from her hubby and her kids? In short. this complete female parent wants to go forth her duties. The narrative was simple yet it has a moral lesson for those adult females who afraid of their duties and for those who leave their duties. Ã¢â¬Å"There is a universe beyond the one circumscribed by acrid covers and moist gum elastic sheets. and the immature female parent must mouse off to reassure herself of its herself of her being so that she might return. strong plenty for her other. more immediate existence. Ã¢â¬ Testimonies on Love in the Cornhusk. Aida Rivera-Ford has lived with her hubby in their big farm in Davao. In connexion to this. the short narrative of Love in the Cornhusks is someway related with her life like its barrio scene and the features of the Characters every bit good. Possibly. the chief character is a adult female based on the fact that the author of this short narrative is a adult female excessively. The narrative is really simple. easy to understand and yet realistic. It begins in a state of affairs where the chief character. Tinang. starts her twenty-f our hours as she visits her Senora with a good vibration that shifted to a different one recently. With a small similarity with the Telenovelas shown in telecasting. this narrative shows that a lowly 1. a nanny and a barrio miss. can be its chief character. whom is sing turns in her life. However. she did non see some sorts of maltreatments nor holding an enemy in her life because the narrative is emphasizing non on these affairs but on how determinations a individual does could impact his or her full life. The writer made the life of Tinang centered between two work forces. The Bagobo. her hubby and Amado do non talk in the narrative but they are characterized otherwise with each other. It appears that her hubby. the Bagobo. is a simple adult male. whom is satisfied of being a husbandman with the two hectares of land for his household. On one manus. Amado. the one she loved before her hubby. is portrayed as a tractor driver. whom wears formal apparels every Saturday and a yet adult male who gives importance to his hereafter as he wants to analyze mechanical technology someday. Marrying is non a gag and to get married the bagobo is non merely a happenstance in TinanÃ¢â¬â¢s life but it is her determination when she did so. even if she did non cognize yet the ground why Amado had all of a sudden gone. The last portion of the narrative has some symbolic figures. Tinang still loves Amado even after she got married to her hubby. Reading the missive is a minute when TinangÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling for Amado has reawakened. To call is the first thing she does. so. she tries to remember her first experiences with him. A serpent comes in the scene sneaking towards her babe. That serpent is the represent of such find and poses menace towards her relationship with her household. Why the serpent is traveling to her babe? It is because that serpent. if Tinang lets herself be taken by her emotion. can destruct her relationship with her Bagobo hubby. Indeed. the serpent is about to assail her boy for he is the symbol and the fruit of the love that she and her hubby shared together. In the terminal of the narrative. the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolisms are stating that Tinang chooses to accept the effects in the determination she made in her life. First. she stands up from her sitting place stating that life must travel on ; so she embraced the babe stating that she has to encompass her ain effects and state of affairss and particularly the people whom God has given to her ; following. she prayed and beg the Godhead non to penalize her after believing other things outside from her married life stating that she realizes that her ideas are incorrect ; afterwards. she checks the tegument of the babe seeking for some Markss demoing the possible cicatrixs in her married life after transmigrating the feelings she one time had with Amado ; and the last 1. the missive fell unnoticed among the cornhusk stating that she leaves that impulse without cognizing that her really strong feeling and yearning to Amado. if is non wholly gone yet. is at least alleviated and is left among the cornhusks. which is meant to be see as merely a portion of her life. Testimonies on The Chieftest Mourner. Testimonies on The Steel Brassiere.Theoretical Framework of the StudyThe Formalistic Approach stresses the close reading of the text and insists that all statements about the work be supported by mentions to the text. Formalistic Approach is used in this survey to delve deeper in the elements. In the Formalistic Approach the informations are presented. analyzed and interpreted. Formalism refers to critical attacks that analyze. interpret or measure built-in characteristics of a text. FORMALISTIC APPROACH PutingFictional charactersPoint of ViewPlot StructureExpositionComplicationConflictClimaxResolutionSubjectFigure 1CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The Virgin and House Full of Daughtersby: Kerima Polotan-Tuvera Love in the Conhusks and The Chieftest Mournerby: Aida Rivera-Ford The Steel Brassiereby: Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo In this survey. wherein the advocates used formalized attack. all elements mentioned must be taken to wholly accomplish the ideal signifier of a work of art. Provided by the information given in this chapter. this survey produced an analysis utilizing an attack applied to the five short narratives and ignored the factors outside the text. This survey used the formalized attack that focused merely in the internal elements that the five short narratives contained. BiographiesKerimaPolotan-Tuvera ( December 16. 1925- August 19. 2011 ) was a Filipino writer. She was a celebrated and extremely well-thought-of fictionist. litterateur and journalists. with her plants holding received among the highest literary differentiations of the Philippines. Aida Rivera-Ford was born in Sulu. She crossed over to Negros Oriental in 1949 for an English grade at Siliman University. Records toast her as the first editor of Sands and Coral. the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s literary pagination. In 1954. she flew to the University of Michigan on a Fulbright grant to procure her masterÃ¢â¬â¢s grade in English. Her work Ã¢â¬Å"Love in the CornhusksÃ¢â¬ is one of five well-crafted narratives for which Rivera-Ford won the Jules A ; Avery Hopwood Prize in Michigan. In 1955. the Sunday ChronicleÃ¢â¬â¢s This Week magazine featured the award winning narrative. with illustration by RodDayao. From N. V. M Gonzales to Epifanio San Juan. critics were one in acclaiming the narrative w ith uncommon congratulations. mentioning its consummate nuance but besides its earnest vision- a rare instance of art predominating upon all credos and manners of persuasion. Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo has a grade in communicating humanistic disciplines from University of the Philippines at Los Banos. She is acquiring her MFA at Dela Salle University while working at the National Commission for Culture and Humanistic disciplines. Chapter 3MethodThis chapter presents the method used in carry oning the narrative. Research Design The proponentÃ¢â¬â¢s uses descriptive method and they are now to show the information in a descriptive mode. It enabled the advocates to depict or show the image of events under the probe and analysis. The descriptive method of research was used for this survey. The research workers focused in showing the signifier used in the five short narratives. The primary end for formalized attack is to find how such elements work together with the textÃ¢â¬â¢s content to determine its effects upon readers. In this survey. its purpose is to analyze the elements such as puting. character. point of position. secret plan construction and subject. Research Instrument This portion shows how the research workers organize the information gathered. The elements of the five short narratives are placed in the tabular array. Puting. characters. point of position. secret plan construction such as expounding. complication. struggle. flood tide and resolution/denouement and subject. Short STORIESSettingFictional charactersPOIN OF VIEWPlot STRUCTURE( Exposition. Complication. Conflict. Climax and declaration or denouement SubjectThe Virgin A House Full of Daughters Love in the Cornhusk The Chieftest Mourner The Steel Brassiere RESEARCH LOCALEThis survey was conducted within the USEP Campus. specifically at the CAS Learning Center and Library. Other auxiliary information was gathered through the usage of cyberspace. RESEARCH PROCESS Initial background enquiry of the readying and needed stuffs were done such as reading the primary beginnings ( the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by K. P. Tuvera. Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by A. R. Ford and The Steel Brassiere by I. S. Crisostomo ) . The beginnings that came from the books ( Handbook of Critical Approaches. etc. ) and through Internet research are used as secondary beginnings. RESEARCH PROCEDURE The advocates for this survey get down the research by choosing the five short narratives by different female writers that involvement them the most and are they had to be worthy of the probe. When the primary beginnings ( the short narratives ) are at manus. the advocates started to read. analyze and construe the plants to analyze what attack was suited to be applied. The advocates picked out an issue that needed geographic expeditions and farther survey from the short narratives and they were able to place the similarities and differences in the narratives through the elements of the secret plan. puting. characters. subject and point of position. To derive more thoughts and information that would back up the survey. the advocates will besides accessed the secondary beginnings from the cyberspace and they made usage of thesis as mentions found in the University Library and CAS Learning Research Center. When the information and information had been gathered. the advocates organized them in meaningful pieces of information. Here. the ability of the advocates in fiting the information was related to how the research was tested. After the paper was organized. the advocates ended by showing the decision with all the groundss and cogent evidence that would back up the research mentioned. Chapter 4PRESENTATION. ANALYSIS. AND INTERPRETATION OF DATAThis subdivision contains the collected information of the research workers in the topic of the survey. It besides includes the analysis and reading of informations. Form and Content of the Short Narratives Table 1. It is the content of the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera. Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo. The content includes the scene that determines the clip and topographic point of the short narratives. characters. secret plan with its parts: expounding. complication. struggle. flood tide. declaration and denouement. The other component is the point of position which identifies how the short narratives are told. Last. the subject. which is the cardinal thought of the narrative that will function as a message to the readers. The VirginThe narrative of The Virgin is set in the office of Miss Mijares. She is the chief character in the narrative. a individual. non look 34 and non precisely an ugly adult female. she was no beauty and she did believe of love. Ã¢â¬Å"She had gone through all these with remarkable forbearance. for it had so her that love stood behineemed vitamin D her. staying her clip. a quiet manus upon her shoulderÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The narrative was told in a 3rd individual limited where in the storyteller merely tells the narrative and focuses to the supporter. The expounding includes the background information about the chief character. about her life. the people outside her and their attitude toward her. The narrative starts in a supporter. Miss Mijares where she interviews her appliers in her office. She went to the cafeteria and went back to her office after. When she talked with the idle across her desk. inquiring them the cursing inquiries that completed their humiliation. watching pale linguas run over dry lips. soil crusted handkerchiefs waver in trembling custodies. she was filled with an restlessness she could non understand. Ã¢â¬Å"Sign here. she had said 1000s of times. forcing the familiar signifier across. her finger held to a line. experiencing the restlessness grow at sight of the adult male or adult female following a hesitating Ten or puting the impress of a thumbÃ¢â¬ The complication is when Miss Mijares interview the adult male. one of her appliers besides. When she returned to the black replacing office. the adult male stood by window. his dorsum to her. half-bending over something he held in his custodies. Ã¢â¬Å"In his custodies. he held her paperweight. an ol d gift from long ago. He had turned it and with the knife tightened the prison guards and dusted it. In this manÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. cupped like that. it look all of a sudden like a doveÃ¢â¬ Miss Mijares is denying herself about her feelings to the adult male and this adult male wills neer her love. But when the adult male was absent for a hebdomad. Miss Mijares waited on that Tuesday he foremost failed to describe for some word from him. in the absence of a definite notice. person else who needed a occupation severely was kept off from it. Ã¢â¬Å"I went to the state. maÃ¢â¬â¢am. he said. on his return. You could hold sent person to state us. she said. It was an exigency. maÃ¢â¬â¢am. my boy died. he said How so? She asked. A slow bitter choler began to from inside her. But you said you were non married! she said. No maÃ¢â¬â¢am. he said gesturing. And she asked him aloud. are you married? And the adult male said. No maÃ¢â¬â¢am. She asked once more. but you haveÃ¢â¬ ¦you have a boy! And the adult ma le replied. I am non married to his female parent. he said grinning doltishly. A flower had climbed to his face. perfusing it. and two big throbbing venas crawled along his temples. Miss Mijares looked off. vomit all at one time. Ã¢â¬Å"You should hold told us everything. she said and she put forth custodies to keep her choler but it slipped off she stood agitating despite herself. Your lives are our concern here. she shouted. Ã¢â¬ The narrative ends in that twenty-four hours. it rained that afternoon in one of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s fierce. unexpected boom storms. Without warning. it seemed to reflect outside Miss MIjares window a grey. unhappy expression. It was past six when Miss Mijares. ventured outside the office. Night had come fleetly and from the dark sky the midst. black. rainy drape continues to fall.